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CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

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Examville is a global education community where users like you can connect and interact with other students and teachers from around the world. Share, seek, download and discuss everything inside and outside the classroom. For more FREE anatomy study material please visit: www.examville.com
Examville is a global education community where users like you can connect and interact with other students and teachers from around the world. Share, seek, download and discuss everything inside and outside the classroom. For more FREE anatomy study material please visit: www.examville.com

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Published by: Examville.com on Feb 16, 2009
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01/28/2013

 
 
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
1. It includes
the brain and spinal cord 
which are enclosed in cranium and vertebral column, respectively.2. Both brain and spinal cord are derived from the neural tube of the embryo.3.
Prosencephalon
becomes the thalamus, hypothalamus (
diencephalon
), cerebral cortex, corpus striatum,hippocampus and amygdala (telencephalon).4.
 Mesencephalon
becomes midbrain.5.
 Rhombencephalon
develops into the medulla (
myelencephalon
), pons and cerebellum (
metencephalon
).
 
 
BRAIN (ENCEPHALON)
 
It is a mass of nerve cells, enclosed within bony case called as
cranium
(brain box) constituting 98% weight of CNS, i.e., about 1400 gms (in adult man) made up of two components:(i)
 
Gray matter
consisting cell body (cyton) part of the neuron(ii)
 
White matter
the part with axon and dendron covered by myelin sheath.
Embryonic division
The anterior end of the neural tube first becomes distinct into three parts:
Prosencephalon,Mesencephalon and rhombencephalon
.
Prosencephalon
divides as
telencephalon
and
diencephalons
; the
mesencephalon
remains undivided and
rhombencephalon
divides as
metencephalon
and
myelencephalon
.The corresponding future (adult) parts of these five divisions are given below in the box.
COVERINGS OF BRAIN OR MENINGES
There are three layers of connective tissue capsule to protect the brain and spinal cord:(i)
 
Pia mater
– the innermost thin, vascular membrane that remains close to nervous tissue.(ii)
 
Arachnoid layer (or spider’s web)
– the middle fibrous layer as network.(iii)
 
Dura mater
– the outermost tough, fibrous layer along cranial bones.Space between pia mater and arachnoid layer is called as
subarachnoid
space, between dura mater and arachnoidis
subdural
space and between dura mater and vertebral column is
epidural space
(which is absent is brain butpresent in spinal cord)
VENTRICLES OF BRAIN
 
Cavity within brain is designated as ventricle lined with ependymal (ciliated) cells.
 
Within cerebral hemispheres are
ventricle I and II
(or
lateral ventricles
or
paracoel
or
telocoel
). Bothtogether open by a common
foramen of Monro
into
the ventricle III (diocoel)
of diencephalon.
 
The ventricle III is connected with the
ventricle IV (metacoel)
of medulla oblongata through a narrow passagecalled
Iter or aqueduct
of Sylvius in the mid brain.
 
Three small apertures, a median
Foramen of Magendie
and a pair of 
Lateral foramen
of 
Luschka
, are alsopresent in the roof of ventricle IV through which the CSF can pass into meningeal spaces.
 
Ventricles indirectly provide nutritive, excretory and defensive function. They also provide support to thenervous tissue and protect them against mechanical shock and contain cerebrospinal fluid.
 
The plexuses of blood vessels (
anterior and posterior choroids
plexuses) that project into ventricles releasemost of the CSF which flows slowly towards ventricle IV by pressure and passes into the spinal cord.
PARTS OF ADULT BRAIN (HUMANS)
Fore brain (or Pros encephalon)
has 3 parts, olfactory lobe, cerebrum and
diencephalon
.
Olfactory Lobes (or Rhinencephalon)
 
These are the pair of solid club-shaped structures present along the lower surface of cerebrum; each consists of an olfactory bulb and an olfactory tract to relay sense of smell to temporal lobes.
Cerebrum (or big brain)
The main and largest part of brain; divided by
median fissure
into two lateral halves called
cerebral hemisphere
.The outer layer
cerebral cortex
of grey matter has large number of 
gyri
and
sulci
on the surface to increase it area.The dorsal thick roof is called as
pallium
which in humans is derived differently hence called as
neopallium
.
In Human Brain
 
 
Cerebrum is largest part of the brain and is divided into four lobes each with areas that control respective functionsas follows:(i)
 
Frontal lobe
. The anterior front part separated by central sulcus from
parietal lobe
. Its
prefrontal
or
association area
is the site for controlling thought, learning, intelligence and intellectual activities,translating perception and memories into plan and actions, reasoning, decision making, expression of emotions; motor area controls voluntary movements.
Broca’s motor area
is the centre for speech and
premotor
area control involuntary movements.(ii)
 
Parietal lobe
: Its
somaesthetic
area controls general sensation, pain, touch, temperature manual skills, etc.Gustatory area is the center for taste.(iii)
 
Temporal lobe
: Lies on both lateral sides below the parietal and frontal lobes separated by lateral fissure. Its
auditory area
is the site for hearing with the Wernicke’s area of understanding speech. It also controls smelland memory.(iv)
 
Occipetal lobe
: The hindermost part behind parietal lobe, its
visual area
is the site for vision.
 
Rolandic sulcus
(or central sulcus) separates frontal and parietal lobes whereas
Sylvian
or
lateralsulcus
separates temporal lobe from parietal lobe.
DIENCEPHALON
 
The small posterior part of fore brain remains dorsally overlapped by cerebrum.
 
Its roof is called
epithalamus
, having
choroids plexus
with blood vessels and on its dorsal furface there is
epiphysis (or pineal body)
.
 
The floor is hypothalamus with ventral
hypophysis (or pituitary gland)
attached through infundibulum.
 
The thick lateral walls are the two
optic thalami
connected interiorly by middle or soft commissure (
massaintermedia
) and a
Habenular commissure
in the antero-dorsal part of the diocoel.
 
In front of the hypophysis there is crossed tract of nerves called
optic chiasma
that connects the left optic lobewith right cerebrum and right optic lobe with left cerebrum..
 
Hypothalamus
constitutes 1/300th part of total brain mass (just 4 gm) in man. It integrates and controls theautonomic (involuntary) functions, maintains homeostasis and equilibrium of the body. It is also the center forthirst, appetite, satiation, love, anger, sex, satisfaction, metabolism, thermoregulation, behaviors related tofighting, fleeing ,mating etc.
 
Septum
a part of hypothalamus is the center for sexual arousal.
THE LIMBIC (OR LIP-LIKE) SYSTEM
 
This is the site of emotions, anger, fear, pleasure and instinctive behavior. It includes interconnected parts of frontal lobe, temporal lobe, thalami and hypothalamus.
 
It is also associated with other related parts (motor areas) of the brain that control the responses like sweating,blushing, sobbing and laughing.
 
Amygdala
is almond-shaped bulge of neurons attached to both the tips of the fork (of limbic system). It is likedefence castle to control the moods (anger and range).
 
Hippocampus
is the swollen lower lip of limbic form, this controls the signals of smell and memories,converts information of short term memory into long term memory i.e, for learning.
BRAIN STEM
 
In human it includes the area between thalamus and spinal cord as mid brain, medulla oblongata, pons varoli.
 
All the nerve fibres which relay signals of afferent input and efferent output between spinal cord and thecerebrum, pass through it. 10 out of 12 cranial nerves, emerge from here.
 
A core of tissue called
reticular formation
running through entire brain stem is composed of highly branchedneurons (called nuclei).It receives and integrates information from many different pathways.

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