Cerebrum is largest part of the brain and is divided into four lobes each with areas that control respective functionsas follows:(i)
. The anterior front part separated by central sulcus from
is the site for controlling thought, learning, intelligence and intellectual activities,translating perception and memories into plan and actions, reasoning, decision making, expression of emotions; motor area controls voluntary movements.
Broca’s motor area
is the centre for speech and
area control involuntary movements.(ii)
area controls general sensation, pain, touch, temperature manual skills, etc.Gustatory area is the center for taste.(iii)
: Lies on both lateral sides below the parietal and frontal lobes separated by lateral fissure. Its
is the site for hearing with the Wernicke’s area of understanding speech. It also controls smelland memory.(iv)
: The hindermost part behind parietal lobe, its
is the site for vision.
(or central sulcus) separates frontal and parietal lobes whereas
separates temporal lobe from parietal lobe.
The small posterior part of fore brain remains dorsally overlapped by cerebrum.
Its roof is called
with blood vessels and on its dorsal furface there is
epiphysis (or pineal body)
The floor is hypothalamus with ventral
hypophysis (or pituitary gland)
attached through infundibulum.
The thick lateral walls are the two
connected interiorly by middle or soft commissure (
) and a
in the antero-dorsal part of the diocoel.
In front of the hypophysis there is crossed tract of nerves called
that connects the left optic lobewith right cerebrum and right optic lobe with left cerebrum..
constitutes 1/300th part of total brain mass (just 4 gm) in man. It integrates and controls theautonomic (involuntary) functions, maintains homeostasis and equilibrium of the body. It is also the center forthirst, appetite, satiation, love, anger, sex, satisfaction, metabolism, thermoregulation, behaviors related tofighting, fleeing ,mating etc.
a part of hypothalamus is the center for sexual arousal.
THE LIMBIC (OR LIP-LIKE) SYSTEM
This is the site of emotions, anger, fear, pleasure and instinctive behavior. It includes interconnected parts of frontal lobe, temporal lobe, thalami and hypothalamus.
It is also associated with other related parts (motor areas) of the brain that control the responses like sweating,blushing, sobbing and laughing.
is almond-shaped bulge of neurons attached to both the tips of the fork (of limbic system). It is likedefence castle to control the moods (anger and range).
is the swollen lower lip of limbic form, this controls the signals of smell and memories,converts information of short term memory into long term memory i.e, for learning.
In human it includes the area between thalamus and spinal cord as mid brain, medulla oblongata, pons varoli.
All the nerve fibres which relay signals of afferent input and efferent output between spinal cord and thecerebrum, pass through it. 10 out of 12 cranial nerves, emerge from here.
A core of tissue called
running through entire brain stem is composed of highly branchedneurons (called nuclei).It receives and integrates information from many different pathways.