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Rock Music

Rock Music

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Published by Michael Sorensen
This document, Rock Music, tells about rock music from start till present day.
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This document, Rock Music, tells about rock music from start till present day.
If you like, give ideas to extensions. Please tell me if you find grammar-mistakes, misspells or wrong information (Add source, please).
Thanks

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Published by: Michael Sorensen on Jun 24, 2007
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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Rock and roll began as a music genre in the United States in the late 1940s. Rock and roll consistedof the blues rhythms, R&B, African American culture and country/western music. The words and phrases go as far back as in the 1920s, but it didn’t get the name until the 1950s. One of the firstforms of Rock and Roll was rockabilly, combined of jazz, Appalachian folk music and gospel.Rocking was used by black gospel singers, referring to dance: to move back and forth or from sideto side, especially gently or rhythmically. However, in 1947, in Roy Brown’s “Good RockingTonight”, which gave “rocking” another meaning - sex. This type of music was rhythm and blues,or “black music”, therefore rarely heard by white audiences.However, white Americans did enjoy the music, if white musicians performed it, and they oftenobjected if the original black artist performed it. Only a few R&B (Rhythm and Blues) musicianssucceeded, i.e. Louis Jordan, the Mills Brothers and The Ink Spots. Many white rock and roll hitswere only covers of old R&B or blues songs. In fact, the blues was proved important inspirationsfor British Blues-rockers such as the Yardbirds, Cream and Led Zeppelin.Alan Freed, a DJ from Cleveland, started playing this type of music in 1951 for multi-racialaudience. The first rock and roll concert was also organized by Freed; it was called “The MoondogCoronation Ball”. However, African Americans mainly attended, but so many that the concertalmost ended early because of overcrowding. Freed has organized many rock and roll events since,attended by both whites and blacks. Not everybody agrees to what should be considered the first rock and roll record. Rolling Stonemagazine said it was Elvis Presley’s “That’s All Right (Mama)” from 1954, though many artists and bands played rock and roll long time before, such as Sister Rosetta Tharpe, that goes back to the1930. In some ways, her music contained the major elements of mid-1950s rock and roll.In 1954, Bill Haley’s “Rock Around the Clock” opened the door for this new popular culture, as itwas the first rock and roll song that outnumbered Billboard magazine’s main sales. Chuck Berryand Little Richard, along with many vocal “doo-wop” groups, also made it to top quite early. Theother pop chart musician was going down, and making a hit song was harder than ever.Rock and roll appeared in the times of segregation, and many racial problems. Rock and roll thatcombined white and black music received strong reactions from the public.The very words “Rock and roll” was credited to Louis Jordan and His Tympany Five’s version of “Tamburitza Boogie”, though it has been used many times before, all the way back to 1916.In 1954, Presley recorded the hit “That’s All Right (Mama)” in Memphis. He played a rock andcountry & western fusion called rockabilly, also known to be one of the first rock genres. ElvisPresley was the first superstar rock musician.The year’s after, “Rock around the Clock” really set rock and roll in motion. Teenagers caused riotsin the cities where Bill Haley and His Comets performed. He also made a cover of Joe Turner’s“Shake, Rattle and Roll”. This was the first rock and roll hit, which sold more than a million copies.His next big hit, “See You Later Alligator”, sold over a million copies in only 30 days. Bill Haley became a worldwide hit.As said, the white population didn’t like black music, until Alan Freed. However, the white population quickly smelled money, and sold white covers of black artists. Many of Presley’s hitswere simply old black music.Along side with USA’s lousy copyright law, covering was a known thing. One of the first successfulcovers was Wynonie Harris’ version of Roy Brown’s “Good Rocking Tonight”, and made it into ashowy rocker theme instead of jump blues. Famous Pat Boone recorded his own versions of LittleRichard songs, however when he tried “Long Tall Sally”, he found it so intense that he couldn’tcover it. Later, some original artists were played originally in the radio as well. Once, Little Richardcalled Pat Boone from the audience and introduced him as “the man who made me a millionaire”.However, covering was not just imitations, but editing them into different styles. “Shake, Rattle and
 
Roll” was originally a humorous tale about adult love, but was transformed into an energetic dance.In 1959, Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, and the Big Bopper (J. P. Richardson) were killed in a planecrash. This inspired Don McLean’s popular ballad in 1971, called “American Pie”, and the February3 was known as “The Day the Music Died”. These three, along with Presley, was the first teen idols.Elvis Presley also died devastating, due to overweight. Later The Beatles, Paul Anka, FrankieAvalon and The Monkeys had an appeal to teenage audiences. Teen idols were known for goodlooks and catchy pop music, where a good look was a huge part of their success. This is the beginning of teen magazines, where magazines like 16 Magazine and Tiger Beat monthly featured a popular teen idol on the cover.This enormous movement brought blues artists to Britain, and inspired the young people, includingJohn Lennon and Paul McCartney, who formed “the Quarrymen”, and later developed into “TheBeatles”. The American rock and roll, which had grown world famous, certainly bloomed inBritain, as the youth started their own bands. Britain became a new centre of rock and roll.In 1958, three British teenagers became Cliff Richard and the Drifters (Later known as Cliff Richard and the Shadows), and were not only the first true British Rock and roll single, but also theera of British rock. After the success of the Beatles, a new term was created. Beatlemania, used todescribe fan frenzy, especially young teenage girls, toward The Beatles. A number of variationsused for different bands, such as menudomania or rollermania for two world famous bands.Beatlemania caused something unusual; The Beatles sold over 30 million records in America aloneduring 1964. The Beatles have sold 106.5 million albums in the USA in all time. Some of the mostfamous rock bands came from Britain as well, such as Black Sabbath, Led Zeppelin, The RollingStones, The Who, Pink Floyd, and Queen!In the early and mid 1960s Bob Dylan came in to the rock movement, and helped to start the trendof Folk rock and bringing protest songs to a wider public, and simply kept singing alongside withThe Byrds, Simon and Garfunkel Joni Mitchell, and Neil Young’s renewed folk rock.Psychedelia or psychedelic rock started out on the folk scene, with Holy Modal Roundersintroducing the term in 1964. This music was often connected with the opposition of the VietnamWar. In England, Pink Floyd developed an underground culture of psychedelic rock since 1965. In1966, the Beatles released their album Revolver, which contained psychedelia in Tomorrow Never Knows and in Yellow Submarine. The Beach Boys’ Pet Sounds contained psychedelia as well. Thesuper group Cream debuted, and Jimi Hendrix also got popular. In 1967, The Doors brought their first album, and as the years went by albums simple kept coming from the bands and artists.On to Progressive rock, this sub genre is exactly what it’s called. Bands simply experimented andmade progress within the rock music with different instruments, song types and musical forms. Pink Floyd, The Moody Blues and Golden Earring tried out with wind sections, string sections and evenfull orchestras. The music became sophisticated and had chord structures. There were manysuccessful bands, including Genesis, Electric Light Orchestra, Yes, and Soft Machine.Rock music had a less successful era, known as “bubble gum pop”, a part of soft rock; however, it brought out few bands. Though soft rock it self became quite popular, with big names such as BarryManilow, Neil Diamond and even Tina Turner, and groups such as The Carpenters and ElectricLight Orchestra.From mid to late 1970s, a second wave of British rock bands got popular, bands such as Cream, LedZeppelin, Deep Purple, Judas Priest, Queen and Black Sabbath. They were the foundation of heavymetal rock. Critics disliked this genre, as it simply was heavy. This genre also includes bands suchas AC/DC, Kiss and Aerosmith.This was also the time of Arena rock, as The Beatles, The Rolling Stones and The Who began live performances in stadiums and arenas, which created the arena rock bands. However, this wasentertainment companies that created it.
 
Punk rock was a reaction to the disco, which was on height with rock in the late 1970s andcommercialism of arena rock. Expertise wasn’t necessary and was easy to play. Many punk bandswanted to shock the mainstream culture. Ramones drummer Tommy Ramone stated, “In its initialform, a lot of [1960s] stuff was innovative and exciting. Unfortunately, what happens is that peoplewho could not hold a candle to the likes of Hendrix started noodling away. Soon you had endlesssolos that went nowhere. By 1973, I knew that what was needed was some pure, stripped down, no bullshit rock ‘n’ roll”. The Ramones was often said to be the first punk bands, there was others inthe New York scene. Artists like Patti Smith, The Heartbreakers and Television played the exactsame stripped down rock, and often along with the Ramones at CGBG’s (OMFUG), the legendarymusic club in Manhattan of New York. In 1976 The Ramones, toured with the British punk band theSex Pistols. This tour was credited for inspiring a wave of English punk bands such as The Clash,The Damned and the Buzzcocks. In England, the music became more violent and expressed more in political form and despite an airplay ban on the channel BBC, the two first singles “Anarchy in theU.K.” and “God Save the Queen” got to the UK top chart.In the 1980s, rock music split into a variety of styles. In addition, New Wave of British HeavyMetal came. Eddie Van Halen, David Lee Roth (Both from Van Halen) and Freddie Mercury (of Queen) raised the standard of performance art. American heartland rock came, with artists likeBruce Springsteen with others. Rock and roll fused with folk music styles from around the world,known as “world music”, like Aboriginal Rock, which is the traditional rock elements combinedwith the Indigenous Australians instruments like the Didgeridoo and the clap sticks.Glam metal was also a new genre, which popularity grew. Inspired by Aerosmith and Alice Cooper,the earliest glam metal bands included W.A.S.P. and Ratt. They were known for their lifestyles,weird hairstyles and make-up. Not only was their music aggressive, but also macho, with lyricsabout sex, drinking, drugs and the occult.In the mid-1980s, a glam metal band had two hits, a “power ballad” and a hard-rocking anthem. AsGuns n’ Roses’ debut album, Appetite for Destruction, was a huge seller, the band could continuethe success in the early 1990s.Alternative music or alternative rock was used to describe in the early 1980s as bands that didn’t fitinto the mainstream genres, and was rarely heard on the radio. However, most of these bands were punk. Many important bands was from the 80s underground alternative rock movement, includingR.E.M., The Smith, Pixies, The Cure and many more. Artists like this turned to indie labels, andwas known as college radio. Other succeeded alternative rock styles include jangle pop and gothicrock.Rock radio was dominated by hard rock and glam metal, and not only had MTV arrived with ashallow attitude, saying style was more important than content. Young musicians rejected glammetal and arena rock, and created grunge. A few grunge bands, such as early Nirvana andMudhoney, were much inspired by garage rock/punk rock. Others like Alice in Chains andSoundgarden was more into early heavy metal and nihilistic punk. Grunge stayed in the AmericanPacific Northwest region, especially Seattle, until the breakthrough of Nirvana in 1991, as theyreleased the album Nevermind. Nirvana and their front man Kurt Cobain was a sensationworldwide, and nearly removed experimental hard rock from the mainstream, even after the verysuccessful release of Guns n’ Roses double album Use Your Illusion I and II. Nirvana was more direct rock music, and aided successful bands like Pearl Jam and Soundgarden. Nirvana and grunge music now dominated the mainstream, until Kurt Cobain’s sudden suicide,early April 1994. Grunge slowly faded out, and in 1996, grunge was dead, kept alive bySoundgarden, Pearl Jam and Alice in Chains, but apparently, Nirvana was the foundation of grunge.While the U.S. had grunge and rap, Britain had a 1960s revival in the mid-90s, often called Britpop.Bands like Suede, Oasis, Blur and Radiohead grew from the Britpop, mixed of old British guitar, a

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