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Fundamentals of Futures and Options Markets Edition 7 ch 12 Problem SolutionsRatings: (0)|Views: 1,878|Likes: 4

Published by Michael Evans

Fundamentals of Futures and Options Markets Edition 7 ch 12 Problem Solutions

Fundamentals of Futures and Options Markets Edition 7 ch 12 Problem Solutions

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/124467493/Fundamentals-of-Futures-and-Options-Markets-Edition-7-ch-12-Problem-Solutions

01/02/2015

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CHAPTER 12Introduction to Binomial Trees

Practice Questions

Problem 12.8.

Consider the situation in which stock price movements during the life of a European optionare governed by a two-step binomial tree. Explain why it is not possible to set up a positionin the stock and the option that remains riskless for the whole of the life of the option.

The riskless portfolio consists of a short position in the option and a long position in

∆

shares. Because

∆

changes during the life of the option, this riskless portfolio must alsochange.

Problem 12.9.

A stock price is currently $50. It is known that at the end of two months it will be either $53or $48. The risk-free interest rate is 10% per annum with continuous compounding. What isthe value of a two-month European call option with a strikeprice of $49? Use no-arbitragearguments.

At the end of two months the value of the option will be either $4 (if the stock price is $53) or $0 (if the stock price is $48). Consider a portfolio consisting of:

shares1 option

+∆ :− :

The value of the portfolio is either

48

∆

or

53 4

∆−

in two months. If

48 53 4

∆ = ∆−

i.e.,

0 8

∆ = .

the value of the portfolio is certain to be 38.4. For this value of

∆

the portfolio is thereforeriskless. The current value of the portfolio is:

0 8 50

f

. × −

where

f

is the value of the option. Since the portfolio must earn the risk-free rate of interest

0 10 2 12

(0850)384

fe

. × /

. × − = .

i.e.,

2 23

f

= .

The value of the option is therefore $2.23.This can also be calculated directly from equations (12.2) and (12.3).

1 06

u

= .

,

0 96

d

= .

sothat

0 10 2 12

0 960 56811 06 0 96

e p

. × /

− .= = .. − .

and

0 10 2 12

056814223

fe

− . × /

= × . × = .

Problem 12.10.

A stock price is currently $80. It is known that at the end of four months it will be either $75

or $85. The risk-free interest rate is 5% per annum with continuous compounding. What isthe value of a four-month European put option with a strikeprice of $80? Use no-arbitragearguments.

At the end of four months the value of the option will be either $5 (if the stock price is $75)or $0 (if the stock price is $85). Consider a portfolio consisting of:

shares1 option

−∆ :+ :

(Note: The delta,

∆

of a put option is negative. We have constructed the portfolio so that it is+1 option and

−∆

shares rather than

1

−

option and

+∆

shares so that the initial investmentis positive.)The value of the portfolio is either

85

− ∆

or

75 5

− ∆+

in four months. If

85 75 5

− ∆ = − ∆ +

i.e.,

0 5

∆ = − .

the value of the portfolio is certain to be 42.5. For this value of

∆

the portfolio is thereforeriskless. The current value of the portfolio is:

0 5 80

f

. × +

where

f

is the value of the option. Since the portfolio is riskless

0 05 4 12

(0580)425

fe

. × /

. × + = .

i.e.,

1 80

f

= .

The value of the option is therefore $1.80.This can also be calculated directly from equations (12.2) and (12.3).

1 0625

u

= .

,

0 9375

d

= .

so that

0 05 4 12

0 93750 63451 0625 0 9375

e p

. × /

− .= = .. − .

1 0 3655

p

− = .

and

0 05 4 12

0 3655 5 1 80

f e

− . × /

= × . × = .

Problem 12.11.

A stock price is currently $40. It is known that at the end of three months it will be either $45or $35. The risk-free rate of interest with quarterly compounding is 8% per annum. Calculatethe value of a three-month European put option on the stock with an exercise price of $40.Verify that no-arbitrage arguments and risk-neutral valuation arguments give the sameanswers.

At the end of three months the value of the option is either $5 (if the stock price is $35) or $0(if the stock price is $45).Consider a portfolio consisting of:

shares1 option

−∆ :+ :

(Note: The delta,

∆

, of a put option is negative. We have constructed the portfolio so that itis +1 option and

−∆

shares rather than

1

−

option and

+∆

shares so that the initialinvestment is positive.)The value of the portfolio is either

35 5

− ∆ +

or

45

− ∆

. If:

35 5 45

− ∆ + = −

i.e.,

0 5

∆ = − .

the value of the portfolio is certain to be 22.5. For this value of

∆

the portfolio is thereforeriskless. The current value of the portfolio is

40

f

− ∆+

where

f

is the value of the option. Since the portfolio must earn the risk-free rate of interest

(40 0 5 ) 1 02 22 5

f

× . + × . = .

Hence

2 06

f

= .

i.e., the value of the option is $2.06.This can also be calculated using risk-neutral valuation. Suppose that

p

is the probability of an upward stock price movement in a risk-neutral world. We must have

45 35(1 ) 40 1 02

p p

+ − = × .

i.e.,

10 5 8

p

= .

or:

0 58

p

= .

The expected value of the option in a risk-neutral world is:

0 0 58 5 0 42 2 10

× . + × . = .

This has a present value of

2 102 061 02

.= ..

This is consistent with the no-arbitrage answer.

Problem 12.12.

A stock price is currently $50. Over each of the next two three-month periods it is expected to go up by 6% or down by 5%. The risk-free interest rate is 5% per annum with continuouscompounding. What is the value of a six-month European call option with a strike price of $51?

A tree describing the behavior of the stock price is shown in Figure S12.1. The risk-neutral probability of an up move,

p

, is given by

0 05 3 12

0 950 56891 06 0 95

e p

. × /

− .= = .. − .

There is a payoff from the option of

56 18 51 5 18

. − = .

for the highest final node (whichcorresponds to two up moves) zero in all other cases. The value of the option is therefore

2 0 05 6 12

5 18 0 5689 1 635

e

− . × /

. × . × = .

This can also be calculated by working back through the tree as indicated in Figure S12.1.The value of the call option is the lower number at each node in the figure.

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