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Table Of Contents

RECORD OF CHANGES
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION TO BALLISTICS
Section 1 - General
Section 2 - Definitions
CHAPTER 2 - INTERNAL BALLISTICS
Section 1 - Introduction
Section 2 - Propellant
Section 3 - The Effects of Variations in Loading Conditions
Section 4 - Charge Design and Muzzle Velocity
CHAPTER 3 - EXTERNAL BALLISTICS
Section 1 - In-Vacuum/in-Air Trajectories
Section 2 - The Atmosphere
Section 3 - Forces Due to Air Resistance
Section 4 - Drift
Section 5 - Rotation of the Earth
CHAPTER 4 - TERMINAL BALLISTICS
Section 2 - Terminal Effects
Section 3 - The Effectiveness of Fire
Section 4 - Crater Analysis
CHAPTER 5 - BALLISTIC METEOROLOGY
Section 2 - The Determination of Ballistic Met Data
Section 3 - Validity of Met
CHAPTER 6 - VARIATIONS AND CORRECTIONS
Section 1 - Nature of Variations
Section 2 - Corrections
Section 3 - Distinction Between Range Variations and Range Corrections
Section 4 - Determination of Corrections
CHAPTER 7 - ACCURACY AND CONSISTENCY OF ARTILLERY FIRE
Section 2 - Statistics for the Gunner
Section 3 - Dispersion and Probability
CHAPTER 8 - FIRE CONTROL DATA
Section 1 - Establishing Ballistic Data
Section 2 - Tabular Firing Tables
CHAPTER 9 - AMMUNITION
Section 2 - Propellants
Section 3 - High Explosives
Section 4 - Cartridge Systems
Section 5 - Projectiles
Section 6 - Anti-Tank Projectiles
Section 7 - Fuzes
Section 8 - Ammunition Marking
Section 9 - Ammunition Sorting
Section 10 - Ammunition Preparation
Section 11 - Prematures
ANNEX A - EXAMPLE COMPUTATION OF IN-VACUUM TRAJECTORY
ANNEX B - EXPLANATORY NOTES ON SOME Si UNITS
ANNEX C - REFERENCES AND STANDARDIZATION AGREEMENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURETITLE
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION TO BALLISTICS
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
APPLICATION
SECTION 2
GENERAL
INTRINSIC ELEMENTS
INITIAL ELEMENTS
TERMINAL ELEMENTS
DEFINITIONS RELATING TO EQUIPMENT
CHAPTER 2
INTERNAL BALLISTICS
SUMMARY OF EVENTS
VELOCITY AND PRESSURE
DISTRIBUTION OF ENERGY
MUZZLE VELOCITY AND WEIGHT OF PROPELLANT CHARGE
PROPELLANT
SECTION 3
THE EFFECTS OF VARIATIONS IN LOADING CONDITIONS
POSITION OF ALL-BURNT
VARIATION IN CHARGE WEIGHT
VARIATION IN PROPELLANT SIZE
VARIATION IN PROJECTILE WEIGHT
VARIATION IN PROPELLANT SHAPE
VARIATION IN CHAMBER CAPACITY
VARIATION IN BORE AREA
VARIATION IN SHOT-START PRESSURE
VARIATION IN SHOT-TRAVEL
VARIATION IN CHARGE WEIGHT, PROPELLANT SIZE AND SHAPE
CHARGE DESIGN AND MUZZLE VELOCITY
CHARGE DESIGN
Charge Type Charges
MUZZLE VELOCITY
PROPELLANT MANUFACTURE
PROPELLANT PROOF
PROPELLANT TEMPERATURE
MOISTURE CONTENT OF PROPELLANTS
POSITION OF BAGGED PROPELLANT IN THE CHAMBER
AMMUNITION LOTS
WEIGHT OF PROJECTILE
NON-UNIFORM RAMMING
DRIVING BANDS
FALL-BACK
COPPERING
PROPELLANT RESIDUE
EFFECT OF BARREL WEAR
ABNORMAL INTERNAL BALLISTIC EFFECTS
OCCASION-TO-OCCASION EFFECT (DAY-TO-DAY EFFECT)
CHARGE-TO-CHARGE PROPELLANT PERFORMANCE
CALIBRATION
TOLERANCES IN NEW EQUIPMENTS
DETERMINATION OF MUZZLE VELOCITY
VELOCITY TREND
CHAPTER 3
EXTERNAL BALLISTICS
IN-VACUUM/IN-AIR TRAJECTORIES
MOTION IN A VACUUM
CHARACTERISTICS OF IN-VACUUM TRAJECTORY
MOTION IN AIR
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE IN-AIR TRAJECTORY
THE ATMOSPHERE
REGIONS OF THE ATMOSPHERE
REGIONS OF CONCERN TO ARTILLERY
FORCES DUE TO AIR RESISTANCE
DRAG
VELOCITY
EFFECTS DUE TO VELOCITY
PROJECTILE DESIGN
BALLISTICS COEFFICIENT
ANGLE OF YAW
STABILIZATION
OVER-STABILIZED AND UNSTABLE PROJECTILES
SECTION 4
DRIFT
GYROSCOPIC CONSIDERATIONS
GYROSCOPIC MOTION OF A SPINNING PROJECTILE
DRIFT DUE TO EQUILIBRIUM YAW
CORIOLIS EFFECT
MAGNUS EFFECT
POISSON EFFECT
LATERAL JUMP
DRIFT CONSTANT
CROSS-WIND EFFECT
ROTATION OF THE EARTH
EFFECTS OF ROTATION ON RANGE
ROTATION EFFECTS ON BEARING
APPLICATION OF CORRECTIONS
CHAPTER 4
TERMINAL BALLISTICS
TERMINAL EFFECTS
HIGH EXPLOSIVE EFFECT
FRAGMENT PATTERNS
EFFECTS ACHIEVED
CARRIER SHELL
ANTI-TANK PROJECTILE
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FIRE
EFFECTIVENESS OF GUN AND MORTAR FIRE
EQUIVALENT FOR OTHER GUNS
CRATER ANALYSIS
EXAMINATION OF SHALL CRATERS
EXAMINING MORTAR BOMB CRATERS
SHELL IDENTIFICATION
CHAPTER 5
BALLISTIC METEOROLOGY
ATMOSPHERIC PROPERTIES (See Chapter 3, Section 2)
THE DETERMINATION OF BALLISTIC MET DATA
DETERMINATION OF MET DATA
COMPUTER MET MESSAGES
VALIDITY OF MET
SPACE VALIDITY
TIME VALIDITY
CRITERION FOR SELECTION OF MET DATA
CHAPTER 6
VARIATIONS AND CORRECTIONS
NATURE OF VARIATIONS
DEFINITION
STANDARD CONDITIONS
VARIATIONS IN RANGE, TIME OF FLIGHT AND VERTEX
VARIATIONS IN BEARING
STANDARD AND NON-STANDARD CONDITIONS
CROSS-TERM EFFECTS
CORRECTIONS
CORRECTIONS TO ELEVATION OR RANGE
DESCRIPTION OF RANGE CORRECTIONS
DISTINCTION BETWEEN RANGE VARIATIONS AND RANGE CORRECTIONS
DIFFERENCE IN SIGN
DIFFERENCE IN SIZE
DETERMINATION OF CORRECTIONS
DETERMINATION OF RANGE CORRECTION OF THE MOMENT
NON-STANDARD PROJECTILE CORRECTION
ROTATION CORRECTION
NON-RIGIDITY CORRECTION
MV CORRECTION
DESCRIPTION OF BEARING CORRECTIONS
BEARING VARIATIONS AND BEARING CORRECTIONS
DESCRIPTION OF FUZE SETTING CORRECTIONS
MV VARIATIONS
CORRECTION OF THE MOMENT
ANGLE OF SIGHT
MECHANICAL FUZES
CORRECTIONS IN HIGH ANGLE FIRE
REDUCTION OF DATA
CHAPTER 7
ACCURACY AND CONSISTENCY OF ARTILLERY FIRE
DEFINITIONS
STATISTICS FOR THE GUNNER
MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY
MEASURES OF DISPERSION
DISPERSION AND PROBABILITY
MEAN POINT OF IMPACT
PROBABLE ERROR
DISPERSION PATTERN
DISPERSION SCALE
NORMAL PROBABILITY CURVE
RANGE PROBABLE ERROR
FORK
DEFLECTION PROBABLE ERROR
VERTICAL PROBABLE ERROR
AIRBURST PROBABLE ERROR
APPLICATION OF PROBABLE ERRORS
PROBABILITY TABLES
MOST PROBABLE POSITION OF THE MEAN POINT OF IMPACT
SINGLE SHOT HIT PROBABILITY AND ASSURANCE
Number of Rounds Factor Number of Rounds Factor
CHAPTER 8
FIRE CONTROL DATA
ESTABLISHING BALLISTIC DATA
DETERMINATION OF BASIC BALLISTIC DATA
PROCESSING OF BALLISTIC DATA
NON-STANDARD AMMUNITION
PREPARATION OF COMPUTER TAPES AND FIRING TABLES
TABULAR FIRING TABLES
CONSTRUCTION OF THE FIRING TABLES
FIRING TABLE LAYOUT
CHAPTER 9
AMMUNITION
SERVICE CLASSIFICATION
PROPELLANTS
PROPELLANT SHAPE
PROPELLANT DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SINGLE, DOUBLE AND TRIPLE BASE PROPELLANTS
GRANULATION
FLASH AND SMOKE
MAJOR GROUPS OF HIGH EXPLOSIVES
EXPLOSIVE TRAIN
MISCELLANEOUS EXPLOSIVES
CARTRIDGE SYSTEMS
QF CARTRIDGE (Figure 9-4-1)
BL CARTRIDGE (Figure 9-4-2)
PRIMERS
PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS (Care and Handling)
CHARGES
PROPELLANT PROOF AND CHARGE ADJUSTMENT
SECTION 5
PROJECTILES
PROJECTILE DEFINITIONS
FACTORS AFFECTING PROJECTILE DESIGN
FACTORS AFFECTING BALLISTIC PERFORMANCE
PROJECTILE STRESSED ON FIRING
DRIVING BANDS (Figures 9-5-2 and 9-5-3)
HIGH EXPLOSIVE PROJECTILE (INTERNAL FORM AND DIMENSIONS) (Figure 9- 5-4)
CARRIER PROJECTILES (Figures 9-5-5 to 9-5-7)
SECTION 6
ANTI-TANK PROJECTILES
HIGH EXPLOSIVE ANTI-TANK PROJECTILES
SECTION 7
FUZES
DESIGN PRINCIPLES
FORCES USED IN ARMING FUZES
CLASSIFICATION
IMPACT FUZES
TIME FUZES
MECHANICAL TIME MECHANISM
ELECTRONIC TIME FUZES
BOOSTERS
PROXIMITY FUZES
SECTION 8
AMMUNITION MARKING
SECTION 9
AMMUNITION SORTING
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
SECTION 10
AMMUNITION PREPARATION
SECTION 11
PREMATURES
EXAMPLE COMPUTATION OF IN-VACUUM TRAJECTORY
EXPLANATORY NOTES ON SOME SI UNITS
REFERENCES AND STANDARDIZATION AGREEMENTS
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Artillery Ballistics and Ammunition

Artillery Ballistics and Ammunition

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Published by Catovic
This manual is only an introduction to the vast and complicated subject of ballistics. It
does not deal in advanced theory but does contain material for the benefit of those who wish to
pursue this fundamental aspect of gunnery beyond the barest essentials.
This manual is only an introduction to the vast and complicated subject of ballistics. It
does not deal in advanced theory but does contain material for the benefit of those who wish to
pursue this fundamental aspect of gunnery beyond the barest essentials.

More info:

Published by: Catovic on Feb 16, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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