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Year in review (by The Ukrainian Weekly) 1983

Year in review (by The Ukrainian Weekly) 1983

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www.ukrweekly.com The Ukrainian Weekly was founded in 1933 to serve the Ukrainian American community and to function as a vehicle for communication of that community's concerns to the general public in the United States. Today the English-language newspaper publishes news about Ukraine and Ukrainians around the world; its readership, though mostly North American, is worldwide. The Ukrainian Weekly's editorial offices are in Parsippany, NJ. It is published by the Ukrainian National Association, a fraternal benefit life insurance society, based in Parsippany, NJ. Read more at www.ukrweekly.com
www.ukrweekly.com The Ukrainian Weekly was founded in 1933 to serve the Ukrainian American community and to function as a vehicle for communication of that community's concerns to the general public in the United States. Today the English-language newspaper publishes news about Ukraine and Ukrainians around the world; its readership, though mostly North American, is worldwide. The Ukrainian Weekly's editorial offices are in Parsippany, NJ. It is published by the Ukrainian National Association, a fraternal benefit life insurance society, based in Parsippany, NJ. Read more at www.ukrweekly.com

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7
No. 52..^THE
UKRAINIAN WEEKLY SUNDAY, DECEMBER
25,1983 ^ ;^^^^^^^^^^^5
1983:
A LOOK BACK
intensified
repression in Ukraine
1983 was yet another woeful yearfor dissidents and religious activistsin Ukraine. The mantle of power inthe Soviet Union had earlier beenpassed on to Yuri Andropov, theformer KGB chief who was thescourge of the dissident movementduring the truculent years of theBrezhnev era. The year saw anintensification of repression againsthuman-rights and religious
acti–
vists, new executions of formermembers of the Organization ofUkrainian Nationalists and the U–krainian insurgent Army and theadoption of new criminal statutesaimed at curbing dissent.One such statute, instituted onOctober 1, allowed authorities toimpose additional labor-camp termsof up to five years for prisoners whowere punished for opposing laborcamp administrators. The law deal–ing with "parasitism" was alsoamended, making it easier forauthorities to prosecute both dissi–dents who cannot find work (usuallybecause they are effectively barredfrom employment) and religiousactivists not engaged in it what thelaw terms "socially useful labor."Some dissidents were released in
1983.
Perhaps the most dramaticcase involved two Pentecostal fami–lies - the vashchenkos (who areUkrainian) and the Chmykhalovs -who were granted permission toemigrate in June after spending fiveyears in the U.S. Embassy in Mos–cow. They had sought refuge therein 1978 after Soviet authoritiescontinued to refuse them permissionto leave the Soviet Union.in January, lvan Svitlychny wasreleased from exile, in 1972, thewell-known literary critic and poetwas sentenced to seven years in alabor camp and five years' internalexile for "anti-Soviet agitation andpropaganda." Now 54, Mr. Svitly–chny is partially paralyzed and other-wise disabled as a result of a strokeand brain hemorrhage he suffered in1981 while imprisoned.
Two.
other dissidents released in1983 were vasyl Barladianu, a 42-year-old art historian, and TarasMelnychuk, 51. Mr. Barladianu com–pleted a three-year term for "slander–ing the Soviet state," while Mr.Melnychuk,
a
veteran of the Ukrai–nian national movement, finished afour^year stretch for "hooliganism."But for most dissidents, the yearwas marked by persecution, vio–lence and repression.in January, dissident sourcesreported the arrest of Zorian Popa–diuk, a 29-year-old activist who wasin the second year of a five-yearexile term following a seven-yearlabor-camp sentence, in August itwas learned that Mr. Popadiuk wassentenced to 15 years' imprison–ment for "anti-Soviet agitation andpropaganda."in February, reports from Ukrainerevealed that Ukrainian economistZinoviy Antoniuk, 50, was sentencedto one year in a strict-regimen campfor "parasitism." He had been re-leased in 1981 after completing a 10-year labor-camp and exile term for"anti-Soviet agitation and propa–ganda."Also arrested was well-knownUkrainian Catholic Church activistYosyp Terelia, who had alreadyspent nearly 14 of his 40 years invarious camps, prisons and psychia–tric hospitals Mr. Terelia, perhapsbest known in the West for his book."Notes from a Madhouse," a detail–ed report of his life in a Soviet mentalinstitution, was arrested in the earlypart of theyearafterannouncingtheformation of an initiative Group forthe Defense of the Rightsof Believersand the Church. The group calledfor official recognition of the Ukrai–nian Catholic Church, which wasoutlawed in 1946.Earlier in the year, reports reach–ing the West revealed the death ofMr. Terelia's brother, Borys, whowas killed in a shootout with KGBand police forces in June 1982.There were also reports that YosypTerelia's wife had been harassedprior to her husband's arrest.Another prominent dissident to bere-arrested in 1983 was Olha Heyko,a member of the Ukrainian HelsinkiGroup and wife of imprisoned
Hel–
sinki monitor Mykola Matusevych.
Ms.
Heyko, 29, was arrested onemonth prior to her scheduled re-lease from a labor camp, where shewas completing a three-year termfor "anti-Soviet slander."Also arrested was Ukrainian hu–man-rights activist valery Mar–chenko, a 36-year-old writer-trans–lator and former political prisoner.He was taken into custody in Kiev onOctober 20. He was previously im–prisonedfrom 1973 to 1981 for"anti–Soviet agitation and propaganda."1983 also marked the intensifica–tion of the regime's campaignagainst former members of theOrganization of Ukrainian Nationa–lists and the Ukrainian insurgentArmy, in March, the Soviet papervisti z Ukrainy reported that threeformer OUN members - M. Oho–rodnychyk, P. Shpachuk and v.Stasiv - were sentenced to be shotfor being members of, as the paperput it, "bands of Ukrainian bour–geoise nationalists." The date of theexecutions was not disclosed.in addition, it was revealed thatformer UPA member Myroslav Sym–
chych,
who was due to complete hissecond 15-year labor camp term inOctober 1982, was re-arrested andsentenced in January to an addi–tional two and a half years' impri–sonment. The 60-year-old nationa–list had served terms from 1948 to1963 and 1968 to 1982.Also on the dissident front, PetroRuban began serving a three-yearexile term after completing a six-year labor-camp sentence for activi–ties with the Ukrainian nationalmovement. The 43-year-old wood-carver had previously served twoterms, the last being from 1965 to
1973.
it was also reported that twoUkrainian political prisoners, YuriyBadzio and vasyl Striltsiv. stagedone-day hunger strikes in late 1982to coincide with the 60th anniver–sary of the formation of the Soviet
Union.
Mr. Badzio. a 48-year-oldsocialist theorist, is currently servinga 12-year labor-camp and exile termwhich began in 1980, while MrStriltsiv. a 54-year-old member ofthe Ukrainian Helsinki Group, wassentenced in 1981 while imprisonedto a six-year labor-camp term.The year also saw incidents ofviolence against dissidents and theirfamilies, as well as reports that atleast one dissident's wife had beenattacked in the Soviet press.in January, the wife of Ukrainianhistorian Yaroslav Dashkevych washospitalized after she was brutallybeaten by men while on her way towork in Lviv. it marked the secondtime that Liudmyla Dashkevych,who is active in Lviv cultural circles,had been assaulted. A similar
inci–
dent occurred in 1979.There was also a report that ayoung Ukrainian Catholic nun wasbeaten to death by a gang of youthsin Lviv late in 1982. According tosources in Ukraine, Maria Shwed, a29-year-old member of the outlawedUkrainian Catholic Church, wasattacked and murdered by membersof a Komsomol vigilante groupknown as "druzhynnyky."in February, Svitliana Kyrychenko.wife of Yuriy Badzio, was the subjectof a sardonic article in vechirnyiKiev, a Soviet paper, which accusedher of "egoism" and getting materialsupport from persons in the West.The lengthy article, headlined "Alady with ambition," charged that
Ms.
Kyrychenko sought to exploither husband's imprisonment andthe attention it has received in theWest for personal gain.Two other developments that didnot bode well for the Ukrainiannation were the stepped-up perse–cution of the Ukrainian CatholicChurch and an increase in the go–vernment's Russification campaign.The regime's efforts against theChurch included the sentencing inlate 1982 of two Ukrainian Catholicpriests, vasyl Kavaciv. 49, and Ro–man Esip, 32, both of whom receivedeight-year labor-camp and exileterms. There were also persistentreports of KGB harassment of Ukrai–nian Catholic believers and thesacking of several churches. Butdespite the repression, which in–cluded the suppression of Mr.Terelia's initiative Group for theDefense of Believers and the Church,several samvydav sources reporteda widespread resurgence in theChurch's popularity.Samvydav sources also publishedsecret Soviet documents whichindicated Moscow's plans to expandits Russification policies in Ukraine,particularly in education.The documents included minutesfrom a June 29 meeting of the Colle–gium of Education of the UkrainianSSR, which detailed measures toimprove Russian-language studiesin Ukraine in accordance with a May26 resolution of the Central Com–mittee of the Communist Party ofthe Soviet Union and the Council ofMinisters of the USSR. The resotu–tion called for the upgrading ofRussian-language instruction in allunion republics.A correspondent resolution wasadopted on June 10 by the CentralCommittee of the Communist Partyof the Ukrainian SSR and the Coun–cil of Ministers.Among the recommendationswere raising the level of Russian-language teaching in schools withUkrainian or other languages ofinstruction; teaching Russian tonon-Russian children in pre-schoolinstitutions and preparatory classes;making Russian a "compulsorysubject" in curricula for students ofnon-language departments of peda–gogical institutions; and introduc–ing an entrance exam in Russianlanguage and literature for personsbeginning post-graduate study, aswell as a final examination in thissubject as a requirement for a candi–date's degree.The measures, which will affectvirtually all educational institutionsin Ukraine, were seen as an attemptto Russify the villages, long
con–
sidered strongholds of Ukrainianculture, while at the same timepreventing any Ukrainian backlashin the cities, where the Russianlanguage, though dominant, maynot be as dominant as Soviet officialswould like.Over all, the situation of Ukrai–nian dissidents and religious
acti–
vists in 1983 was bleak. The nucleusof the Ukrainian human-rightsmovement - the members of theUkrainian Helsinki Group– remain,for the most part, either in labor
Sent to the gulag were (fromleft)? Myroslav Symchych, valeriy Marchenko, Otha Heyko, Zorian Popa'cHuk,'YtTsyp Terelia and Zinoviy AfffinTUR.
v
'
 
THE
UKRAINIAN WEEKLY SUNDAY, DECEMBER
25,1983
No. 52
1983:
A LOOK BACK
camps J
r
exile Many were re-arrested while still serving their terms.Religious activists, particularly U–krainian Baptists and Pentecostals,faced intense persecution, as didmembers of the Ukrainian CatholicChurch. Sadly, 1984 promises moreof the same.
Marathon Madrid Conference
After nearly three, often frustrat–ing years of deliberations, the Ma–drid Conference to review imple–mentation of the 1975 Helsinki Ac-cords came to a close on September9. Burdened throughout by a sharpdeterioration of East-West relations- the result of the Soviet invasion ofAfghanistan, the imposition of mar–tial law in Poland and continuedSoviet human-rights abuses - themeeting did serve to focus inter-national attention on Soviet viola–tions of the accords.Even the formal closing week ofthe marathon meeting was marredby yet another Soviet atrocity - theshooting down of a Korean com–mercial jetliner with the loss of 269lives.The road to a concluding docu–ment was a difficult one. When themeeting resumed on February 8following a Christmas recess, therewas little hope that either side waswilling to alter positions that wouldbreak the long-standing deadlock.The NATO countries, led by theUnited States, introduced a numberof amendments to the draft con-eluding document which took intoaccount the Polish situation, thecontinued occupation of Afghanis-tan and the Warsaw Pact countries'dismal human-rights record. TheEastern bloc rejected most of theamendments, while offering
mini–
mal concessions on the others.in March, the neutral and non-aligned countries proposed a
corn-
promise draft which omitted im–portant Western demands, particu–larly in the area of human rights. TheSoviets accepted the proposal onMay 6, but U.S. Ambassador MaxKampelman, speaking for the NATOalliance, said the Western delega–tions would hold out for a "solid andmeaningful" final document.'Finally, on June 17 Spain pro-posed a compromise which cutmost remaining issues down themiddle but which met the key U.S.demand for an experts meeting on"human contacts." The Sovietsaccepted the compromise on July
1.
On July 15. the Reagan admi–nistration announced that it had
Max Kampelman, U.S. ambassadorto marathon Madrid Conference.
accepted the Spanish compromise.Mr. Reagan called it the "best agree–ment attainable" because it ad–vanced "efforts of the West to holdout a beacon of hope for those inEast who seek a more free, just andsecure life."Although the final document leftout many of the Western amend–ments, such as those dealing withthe right to strike, the banning ofradio jamming and the freedom ofjournalists to move about, it didsupport workers' rights to join freetrade unions as well as the rights ofreligious and ethnic minorities.The formal close of the meetingdid not take place until Septemberbecause Malta stubbornly insistedon a special meeting on Mediterra–nean security.The final three days of the meet–
ing,
September 7-9, were devoted toclosing speeches delivered in all buta few cases by the foreign ministersof the 35 signatory states. Becauseof the Korean airliner incident, thelong-awaited meeting between Se–cretary of State George Shultz andSoviet Foreign Minister AndreiGromyko dealt mainly with U.S.objections to Soviet behavior.The concluding document itselfhas been criticized by human-rightsgroups as too vague and general.The External Representation of theUkrainian Helsinki Group said thatthe final document "does not gua–rantee the protection of the Helsinkimonitors,'.' private citizens whoformed unofficial groups in severalSoviet republics to monitor Sovietcompliance with the original ac–cords. Most of the members areeither imprisoned or in exile.The document did make provisionsfor six specializedor"experts'"meetings on a variety of subjects,including sessions on human rights(Ottawa, 1985), human contacts(Bern, 1986) and disarmament(Stockholm, 1984). These meetings,hopefully, will provide a frameworkfor future consideration of a rangeof East-West issues.On the whole, the results of theMadrid meeting were mixed. Theconcluding document did commitsignatory states to follow-up meet–ings on such issues as human rights.At the same time, it failed to pro–duce any credible sign that theSovieJ Union intends to regard itsnew commitments as an obligationto cease or diminish the pattern ofinternal repression and brutalitywhich characterized Soviet behaviorthroughout the entire meeting.But, for the moment, the so-calledHelsinki process, though somewhatfrayed, remains intact, if anything, itallows the West to continue to focusthe international spotlight onegregious Soviet violations of hu–man rights. Although that spotlighthas yet to force the Soviets to appre–ciably alter their behavior, its glarehas served to illuminate Soviet realityand counterbalance the Soviet-Union's propagandistic claim that itbelongs among the civilized coun–tries of the world.
Great Famine memorial observances
it was a year during which solemncommemorations of the 50th
anni–
versary of the Great Famine of 1932-33 overshadowed all else in theUkrainian community as Ukrainianson the local, state or provincial,national and international levelsconcentrated their energies on or–ganizing various events in order toensure that the world would becomeaware of this unknown holocaust.Dozens of local committees wereformed from San Francisco to De–troit to Albany, NY., in order tocommemorate the tragic anniver–sary; scores of feature articles andnews stories appeared in the pressthroughout the United States andCanada, as well as in England,France and Australia; hundreds ofevents - demonstrations, rallies,memorial services, food drives,lectures, seminars - were
held;
many special publications, rangingfrom leaflets to books, appeared tomemorialize the 50th anniversary;and countless public officials on alllevels of government recalled thefamine's 7 million victims in ad-dresses, resolutions and proclama–tions.Details of the myriad obser–vances and press coverage could fillvolumes. What follows is a brief run-down of the major events.in the United States, anniversarycommemorations got rolling withthe formation on January 29 of aІ national famine committee called! the National Committee to Comme–morate Genocide victims in Ukraine1932-33, whose motto became "Letus remember and make othersaware." The committee includedrepresentatives of over 50 Ukrai–nian organizations and local com–munities and was headed by Dr.Peter G. Stercho of Philadelphia.The conference at which the com–mittee was formed was called on theinitiative of Ukrainian OrthodoxMetropolitan Mstyslav who hadorganized a preparatory committeeto mark the famine anniversary fiveyears earlier.The national famine committeeorganized two major events to markthe 50th anniversary of the GreatFamine during 1983. The first, amemorial service at the UkrainianOrthodox Center of St. Andrew theFirst-Called Apostle, was held on St.Thomas Sunday or "Providna Ne–dilia" (Seeing Off Sunday), a daytraditionally set aside by Ukrainiansto honor the dead.Some 13,000 persons participatedin the day's events which began withan archpastoral divine liturgy insideSt. Andrew's Memorial Church andcontinued with an outdoor
ecu–
menical requiem service on thechurch's steps offered by UkrainianOrthodox, Catholic and Protestanthierarchs and clergy. A memorialconcert at the Home of UkrainianCulture capped the commemora–
tion.
The national famine committee'ssecond major event, held in Wash–ington on October
2,
attracted 18,000Ukrainians from all over the UnitedStates and Canada. They came toattend a rally at the front of theWashington Monument, a marchthrough the nation's capital, a demonstration near the Soviet Em–bassy and a memorial concert at theKennedy Center in order to mournthe 7 million famine victims and torenew their pledge to never allowthe world to forget the holocaustinflicted upon the Ukrainian nationby the Soviet regime. The rally
Scene of the memorial service in commemoration of
the 50th
anniversary
of
the Great Famine held on May 15 at trie Ukrainian Orthodox Center.
 
No.
52
THE
UKRAINIAN WEEKLY SUNDAY, DECEMBER
25,1983
1983: A LOOK BACK
participants were addressed byvarious government officials,
reli–
gious and ethnic leaders, and Ukrainian community leaders.The October 2 events were theculmination of a series of eventsheld in the capital during the GreatFamine Memorial Week beginningSeptember 25. Other events were:candlelight vigils near the SovietEmbassy, exhibits about the far .ineand the destruction of Ukrainianchurches by the Soviet government,a scholarly symposium at the
Ameri–
can Enterprise institute, a pressconference 'eatunng eyewitnessesand scholars, a special order in theHouse of Representatives, a recep–tion on Capitol
Hill,
statements inthe U.S. Senate, special liturgiesand a ceremony before the TarasShevchenko monument that standsin Washington.On November 17, the bishops ofthe Catholic Church in the UnitedStates gathered at their nationalmeeting issued a condemnation ofthe 1933 forced famine, in a statement endorsed without oppositionby some
ЗОЮ
bishops, the NationalCatholic Conference of Bishopssaid that the Stalin-perpetratedfamine was motivated "by the desireof the Soviet Union to destroy thenational identity of the Ukrainianpeople." The statement was sub–mitted by Bishop Basil H. Losten ofthe Stamford Ukrainian CatholicEparchy, who had earlier sentletters and information packetsabout the famine to members of thebishops' conference.Meanwhile, in Canada, the firstinternational symposium on theGreat Famine in Ukraine was held inCanada at the University of Quebecat Montreal on March 25-26 with 14top scholars from Canada, theUnited States and France participat–
ing.
Seventeen papers weredeliver–ed at the symposium which wassponsored by the inter-UniversityCentre for European Studies, whichencompasses the University ofQue–bec, the University of Montreal,McGill University and ConcordiaUniversity and the Canadian
insti–
tute of Ukrainian Studies based inEdmonton.The Ontario Council of the Ukrai–nian Canadian Committee markedthe famine anniversary with a five-day, 230-mile bike-a-thon from To–ronto to Ottawa. Thirty-seven Ukrai–nian students pedaled the distancein order to draw public attention tothe Great Famine of 50 years agoand to raise.funds for refugees fromAfghanistan and Kampuchea. Alongthe way the students, clad in highlyvisible blue and yellow T-shirtsemblazoned with the wprds "inMemory of the Millions" and
"Arti–
ficial Famine in Ukraine 1933,"distributed leaflets outlining thepurpose of their trek. The bike-a-thon concluded with a demonstra–tion organized .by the CanadianUkrainian Students' Union (SUSK)near the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa.The bikers raised over 13,000 andpresented this sum to the lnterna–
m
S
KK
к
K'I
v
s
v
s x
The commemorative card issued in Edmonton for the unveiling of amonument to famine victims features the memorial's circular design.and editor, and Marco Carynnyk asional Red Cross during a luncheonat the Fourth World Congress ofFree Ukrainians.Edmonton's Ukrainian commu–nity decided to observe the GreatFamine anniversary by erecting amonument to its victims. A designcalled "The Broken Life Cycle" byartist Ludmilla Temertli, whosemother
had
survived the famine, wasselected; dedication ceremoniestook place on October 23. Themonument stands on city land infront of Edmonton City
Hall.
Canadians also led the way inpreparing documentaries about theGreat Famine of 1932-33 Radio-Quebec Tv, Quebec's educationaltelevision network, presented adocumentary titled "10 Million vic–tims: Ukraine 1933 - The UnknownHolocaust" on its "Planete" series.Researcher-consultant Taras Hu–kalo,director Claude Caron and"Planete" executive producer KarelLudvik were each given awards fortheir outstanding work on !he half-hour film by the Ukrainian Cana–dian Committee. ,CBC-Tv"s award-winning series"The Fifth Estate" presented a 20-minute probe into thp events sur–round;rg the Ukrainian famine of1932-33 on its April 27 broadcast.The producer of the segment wasOleh Rumak.The Ukrainian Famine ResearchCommittee in Toronto was in theprocess of preparing a one-hourdocumentary film on the famine.The committee engaged SlavkoNowytski as Droducer-director,Yuriy Lunovy as associate directorchief researcher. The project wasinitiated by Mr. Carynnyk, and thecommittee operates under theauspices of the Ukrainian CanadianCommittee.At the end of the year, there wasmore good news from Canada, asthe Toronto Board of Educationannounced that it was preparing ateaching unit on the Ukrainian fa-mine. Directed at students in grades11 to 13, the unit will be prepared byDr. Orest Subtelny of York Univer–sity.An international commemorationof the Great Famine anniversary washeld in conjunction with.the FourthWorld Congress o' Free Ukrainiansin Toronto f mammoth ecumenicalservice ana
:
а' і у ware nelc at MapleLeaf Gardens on December 1 withsome 10,000 persons - Torontoarea residents and WCRJ delegatesfrom around the wono -
r
atten–dance The requierr ervce wasoffered by some 20 ' era
r
^hs andclergy of the Ukrair.in -'holic,Orthodox and Protestant
C
hurches.The keynote address was deliver–ed by Brian Mulroney, leader of theProgressive Conservative opposi–tion in the Canadian Panament,who scored the Soviets for satingthe famine that killed 7 mil' on men,women and children in Ukraine TheSoviet Embassy responded to Mr.Mu'roney's speech by filing an
offi–
cial protest with Canada's Depart–ment of External Affairs and callingMr Mulroney's statement that
7
o
8million had died in a
man–
nadefamine a "hundred percent lie "
News in Ukrainian Churches
Partial view of the crowd gathered
near
the Washington
Monument on
October 2 at the Great Famine memorial rally.
19f 3 was a year of expansion andactivity for both the Ukrainian Ca–tholic and Ukrainian OrthodoxChurches.Pope John Paul ll on December20 announced the formation of anew eparchy for Ukrainian Catholicsin the United States, with its seat inParma, Ohio, it will be headed byBishop Robert Moskal.An extraordinary sobor of theUkrainian Greek Orthodox Churchof Canada took place on November26-27 during which the membershipof the sobor increased to five. Twopriests were elevated to bishops,Bishop Wasyl was elevated to
arch-
bishop and a bishops' cathedral was

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