UKRAINIAN WEEKLY SUNDAY, DECEMBER
25,1983 ^ ;^^^^^^^^^^^5
A LOOK BACK
repression in Ukraine
1983 was yet another woeful yearfor dissidents and religious activistsin Ukraine. The mantle of power inthe Soviet Union had earlier beenpassed on to Yuri Andropov, theformer KGB chief who was thescourge of the dissident movementduring the truculent years of theBrezhnev era. The year saw anintensification of repression againsthuman-rights and religious
vists, new executions of formermembers of the Organization ofUkrainian Nationalists and the U–krainian insurgent Army and theadoption of new criminal statutesaimed at curbing dissent.One such statute, instituted onOctober 1, allowed authorities toimpose additional labor-camp termsof up to five years for prisoners whowere punished for opposing laborcamp administrators. The law deal–ing with "parasitism" was alsoamended, making it easier forauthorities to prosecute both dissi–dents who cannot find work (usuallybecause they are effectively barredfrom employment) and religiousactivists not engaged in it what thelaw terms "socially useful labor."Some dissidents were released in
Perhaps the most dramaticcase involved two Pentecostal fami–lies - the vashchenkos (who areUkrainian) and the Chmykhalovs -who were granted permission toemigrate in June after spending fiveyears in the U.S. Embassy in Mos–cow. They had sought refuge therein 1978 after Soviet authoritiescontinued to refuse them permissionto leave the Soviet Union.in January, lvan Svitlychny wasreleased from exile, in 1972, thewell-known literary critic and poetwas sentenced to seven years in alabor camp and five years' internalexile for "anti-Soviet agitation andpropaganda." Now 54, Mr. Svitly–chny is partially paralyzed and other-wise disabled as a result of a strokeand brain hemorrhage he suffered in1981 while imprisoned.
other dissidents released in1983 were vasyl Barladianu, a 42-year-old art historian, and TarasMelnychuk, 51. Mr. Barladianu com–pleted a three-year term for "slander–ing the Soviet state," while Mr.Melnychuk,
veteran of the Ukrai–nian national movement, finished afour^year stretch for "hooliganism."But for most dissidents, the yearwas marked by persecution, vio–lence and repression.in January, dissident sourcesreported the arrest of Zorian Popa–diuk, a 29-year-old activist who wasin the second year of a five-yearexile term following a seven-yearlabor-camp sentence, in August itwas learned that Mr. Popadiuk wassentenced to 15 years' imprison–ment for "anti-Soviet agitation andpropaganda."in February, reports from Ukrainerevealed that Ukrainian economistZinoviy Antoniuk, 50, was sentencedto one year in a strict-regimen campfor "parasitism." He had been re-leased in 1981 after completing a 10-year labor-camp and exile term for"anti-Soviet agitation and propa–ganda."Also arrested was well-knownUkrainian Catholic Church activistYosyp Terelia, who had alreadyspent nearly 14 of his 40 years invarious camps, prisons and psychia–tric hospitals Mr. Terelia, perhapsbest known in the West for his book."Notes from a Madhouse," a detail–ed report of his life in a Soviet mentalinstitution, was arrested in the earlypart of theyearafterannouncingtheformation of an initiative Group forthe Defense of the Rightsof Believersand the Church. The group calledfor official recognition of the Ukrai–nian Catholic Church, which wasoutlawed in 1946.Earlier in the year, reports reach–ing the West revealed the death ofMr. Terelia's brother, Borys, whowas killed in a shootout with KGBand police forces in June 1982.There were also reports that YosypTerelia's wife had been harassedprior to her husband's arrest.Another prominent dissident to bere-arrested in 1983 was Olha Heyko,a member of the Ukrainian HelsinkiGroup and wife of imprisoned
sinki monitor Mykola Matusevych.
Heyko, 29, was arrested onemonth prior to her scheduled re-lease from a labor camp, where shewas completing a three-year termfor "anti-Soviet slander."Also arrested was Ukrainian hu–man-rights activist valery Mar–chenko, a 36-year-old writer-trans–lator and former political prisoner.He was taken into custody in Kiev onOctober 20. He was previously im–prisonedfrom 1973 to 1981 for"anti–Soviet agitation and propaganda."1983 also marked the intensifica–tion of the regime's campaignagainst former members of theOrganization of Ukrainian Nationa–lists and the Ukrainian insurgentArmy, in March, the Soviet papervisti z Ukrainy reported that threeformer OUN members - M. Oho–rodnychyk, P. Shpachuk and v.Stasiv - were sentenced to be shotfor being members of, as the paperput it, "bands of Ukrainian bour–geoise nationalists." The date of theexecutions was not disclosed.in addition, it was revealed thatformer UPA member Myroslav Sym–
who was due to complete hissecond 15-year labor camp term inOctober 1982, was re-arrested andsentenced in January to an addi–tional two and a half years' impri–sonment. The 60-year-old nationa–list had served terms from 1948 to1963 and 1968 to 1982.Also on the dissident front, PetroRuban began serving a three-yearexile term after completing a six-year labor-camp sentence for activi–ties with the Ukrainian nationalmovement. The 43-year-old wood-carver had previously served twoterms, the last being from 1965 to
it was also reported that twoUkrainian political prisoners, YuriyBadzio and vasyl Striltsiv. stagedone-day hunger strikes in late 1982to coincide with the 60th anniver–sary of the formation of the Soviet
Mr. Badzio. a 48-year-oldsocialist theorist, is currently servinga 12-year labor-camp and exile termwhich began in 1980, while MrStriltsiv. a 54-year-old member ofthe Ukrainian Helsinki Group, wassentenced in 1981 while imprisonedto a six-year labor-camp term.The year also saw incidents ofviolence against dissidents and theirfamilies, as well as reports that atleast one dissident's wife had beenattacked in the Soviet press.in January, the wife of Ukrainianhistorian Yaroslav Dashkevych washospitalized after she was brutallybeaten by men while on her way towork in Lviv. it marked the secondtime that Liudmyla Dashkevych,who is active in Lviv cultural circles,had been assaulted. A similar
dent occurred in 1979.There was also a report that ayoung Ukrainian Catholic nun wasbeaten to death by a gang of youthsin Lviv late in 1982. According tosources in Ukraine, Maria Shwed, a29-year-old member of the outlawedUkrainian Catholic Church, wasattacked and murdered by membersof a Komsomol vigilante groupknown as "druzhynnyky."in February, Svitliana Kyrychenko.wife of Yuriy Badzio, was the subjectof a sardonic article in vechirnyiKiev, a Soviet paper, which accusedher of "egoism" and getting materialsupport from persons in the West.The lengthy article, headlined "Alady with ambition," charged that
Kyrychenko sought to exploither husband's imprisonment andthe attention it has received in theWest for personal gain.Two other developments that didnot bode well for the Ukrainiannation were the stepped-up perse–cution of the Ukrainian CatholicChurch and an increase in the go–vernment's Russification campaign.The regime's efforts against theChurch included the sentencing inlate 1982 of two Ukrainian Catholicpriests, vasyl Kavaciv. 49, and Ro–man Esip, 32, both of whom receivedeight-year labor-camp and exileterms. There were also persistentreports of KGB harassment of Ukrai–nian Catholic believers and thesacking of several churches. Butdespite the repression, which in–cluded the suppression of Mr.Terelia's initiative Group for theDefense of Believers and the Church,several samvydav sources reporteda widespread resurgence in theChurch's popularity.Samvydav sources also publishedsecret Soviet documents whichindicated Moscow's plans to expandits Russification policies in Ukraine,particularly in education.The documents included minutesfrom a June 29 meeting of the Colle–gium of Education of the UkrainianSSR, which detailed measures toimprove Russian-language studiesin Ukraine in accordance with a May26 resolution of the Central Com–mittee of the Communist Party ofthe Soviet Union and the Council ofMinisters of the USSR. The resotu–tion called for the upgrading ofRussian-language instruction in allunion republics.A correspondent resolution wasadopted on June 10 by the CentralCommittee of the Communist Partyof the Ukrainian SSR and the Coun–cil of Ministers.Among the recommendationswere raising the level of Russian-language teaching in schools withUkrainian or other languages ofinstruction; teaching Russian tonon-Russian children in pre-schoolinstitutions and preparatory classes;making Russian a "compulsorysubject" in curricula for students ofnon-language departments of peda–gogical institutions; and introduc–ing an entrance exam in Russianlanguage and literature for personsbeginning post-graduate study, aswell as a final examination in thissubject as a requirement for a candi–date's degree.The measures, which will affectvirtually all educational institutionsin Ukraine, were seen as an attemptto Russify the villages, long
sidered strongholds of Ukrainianculture, while at the same timepreventing any Ukrainian backlashin the cities, where the Russianlanguage, though dominant, maynot be as dominant as Soviet officialswould like.Over all, the situation of Ukrai–nian dissidents and religious
vists in 1983 was bleak. The nucleusof the Ukrainian human-rightsmovement - the members of theUkrainian Helsinki Group– remain,for the most part, either in labor
Sent to the gulag were (fromleft)? Myroslav Symchych, valeriy Marchenko, Otha Heyko, Zorian Popa'cHuk,'YtTsyp Terelia and Zinoviy AfffinTUR.