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Published by: rodge_88 on Feb 16, 2009
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History of music
Prehistoric eras and antiquity
The development of music among humansmust have taken place against the backdrop of natural soundssuch as birdsong and thesounds other animals use to communicate.
Prehistoric musicis the name which isgiven to all music produced in preliteratecultures.
Ancient musiccan only beimagined by scholars, based on findings from arange of paleolithicsites, such as bones inwhich lateral holes have been pierced: theseare usually identified asflutes,
 blown at oneend like the Japaneseshakuhachi. The earliestwritten records of musical expression are to befound in theSamavedaof India and in 4,000year oldcuneiformfromUr .
Instruments, such as the seven-holed flute andvarious types of stringed instrumentshave beenrecovered from theIndus Valley Civilization archaeological sites.
India has one of the oldest musical traditions inthe world—references toIndian classical music (
) can be found in the ancient scripturesof theHindutradition, theVedas.The traditional music of Chinahas a history stretching for around three thousand years. Music was animportant part of cultural and social life inAncient Greece: mixed-gender chorusesperformed for entertainment, celebration andspiritual ceremonies; musicians and singers hada prominent role inancient Greek theater In the9th century, the Arab scholar al-Farabiwrote abook on music titled
("Great Book of Music"). He played andinvented a variety of musical instrumentsanddevised theArab tone systemof pitchorganisation, which is still used inArabicmusic.
Prehistoric music
Prehistoric music, once more commonly calledprimitive music, is the name given to all musicproduced inpreliteratecultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very lategeologicalhistory.TraditionalNative Americanand Australian Aboriginal musiccould be calledprehistoric, but the term is commonly used torefer to the music in
before thedevelopment of writing there. It is morecommon to call the "prehistoric" music of non-European continents – especially that which stillsurvives –folk, indigenous, or traditional music.
Ancient music
The prehistoric era is considered to have endedwith the development of writing, and with it, bydefinition, prehistoric music. "Ancient music" isthe name given to the music that followed. The"oldest known song" was written in cuneiform,dating to 4,000 years ago from Ur. It wasdeciphered by Prof. Anne Draffkorn Kilmer (University of Calif. at Berkeley), and wasdemonstrated to be composed in harmonies of thirds, like ancient 
 (Kilmer, Crocker,Brown,
Sounds from Silence
, 1976, Bit Enki,Berkeley, Calif., LCC 76-16729), and also waswritten using aPythagorean tuningof thediatonic scale.Double pipes, such as used by the ancientGreeks, and ancient bagpipes, as well as areview of ancient drawings on vases and walls,etc., and ancient writings (such as in Aristotle,
Book XIX.12) which describedmusical techniques of the time, indicatepolyphony. One pipe in the aulos pairs (doubleflutes) likely served as adroneor "keynote,"while the other played melodic passages.Instruments, such as the seven holed flute andvarious types of stringed instruments have beenrecovered from theIndus valley civilizationarchaeological sites.
) can be foundfrom the scriptures of theHindutradition, theVedas.Samaveda, one of the four vedas describes music at length. The history of musical development in Iran [Persia]Persianmusic,dates back to the prehistoric era. Thegreat legendary king, Jamshid, is credited withthe invention of music. Music in Iran can betraced back to the days of theElamite Empire (2,500-644 B.C). Fragmentary documents fromvarious periods of the country's history establishthat the ancient Persians possessed anelaborate musical culture. TheSassanian period (A.D. 226-651), in particular, has left usample evidence pointing to the existence of alively musical life in Persia. The names of someimportant musicians such as Barbod, Nakissaand Ramtin, and titles of some of their workshave survived.The termEarly musicera may also refer tocontemporary but traditional or folk music,includingAsian music,Persian music,music of  India,Jewish music,Greek music,Roman music,themusic of Mesopotamia, themusic of  Egypt, andMuslim music.
Early Music
Early music is a general term used to describemusic in the European classical tradition fromafter the fall of theRoman Empire, in476CE, until the end of theBaroque erain the middle of the18th century.Music within this enormousspan of time was extremely diverse,encompassing multiple cultural traditions withina wide geographic area; many of the culturalgroups out of which medieval Europedeveloped already had musical traditions, aboutwhich little is known. What unified thesecultures in the Middle Ages was theRomanCatholic Church, and its music served as thefocal point for musical development for the firstthousand years of this period. Very little non-Christian music from this period survived, dueto its suppression by the Church and theabsence of music notation; however, folk musicof modern Europe probably has roots at leastas far back as the Middle Ages.
The traditional musicological or European-influenced aspects of music often listed arethose elements given primacy in European-influenced classical music:melody,harmony, rhythm,tone color , andform.
Melodyis a succession of notes heardas some sort of unit.
Harmonyis the relationship betweentwo or more simultaneous pitches or pitch simultaneities.
Rhythmis the variation of theaccentuation of sounds over time.
Tone color is timbre, see list below.
Formis the structure of a particular piece, how its parts are put together tomake the whole.However, a more comprehensive list is given bystating the aspects of sound:pitch,timbre, intensity, andduration. (Owen 2000:6)
Pitchis the perception of thefrequency  of the sound experienced, and isperceived as how "low" or "high" asound is, and may be further describedasdefinite pitch or  indefinite pitch. It includes: melody, harmony,tonality, tessitura, andtuningor temperament (ibid).
Timbreis the quality of a sound,determined by thefundamentaland itsspectra:overtonesor harmonicsand envelope,and varies betweenvoices  and types and kinds of musicalinstruments,which are tools used toproduce sound. It includes: tone color and articulation (ibid).
Intensity, or dynamics,is how loud or quiet a sound is and includes howstresseda sound is or articulation.
Duration is the temporal aspect of music;time.It includes:pulse,beat,  rhythm, rhythmic density,meter ,tempo  (ibid).These aspects combine to create secondaryaspects including form or structure,texture,and style.Other commonly included aspects includethe spatial location or the movement in space of sounds, gesture, anddance.Silenceis also often considered an aspect of music, if it isconsidered to exist.
Structure includes:motive,subphrase,phrase,phrase group,period,section,  exposition,repetition,variation, development,and other formal units,textural continuity (ibid).
Textureis the interaction of temporaland pitch elements. It includes:homophony,polyphony,heterophony,  and simultaneity. (ibid)
Style is defined by how the aboveelements are used. It is whatdistinguishes an individual composer or group, period, genre, region, or manner of performance (ibid).
Aesthetics is another element thatmany do not know. This is how themusic affects you emotionaly. For example: an upbeat tune may makeyou joyful, while a slow violin songmay make you feel lonely, cold, anddepressed.
Four properties of musicalsounds
Pitch, timbre, duration, volume.Kinds of musicRap is a fast singing rhyming kind of music. It isthe latest kind of music.
What is DRAMA?
Drama comes from Greek words meaning "todo" or "to act." A play is a story acted out. Itshows people going through some eventfulperiod in their lives, seriously or humorously.The speech and action of a play recreate theflow of human life. A play comes fully to life onlyon the stage. On the stage it combines manyarts those of the author, director, actor,designer, and others. Dramatic performanceinvolves an intricate process of rehearsal basedupon imagery inherent in the dramatic text. Aplaywright first invents a drama out of mentalimagery. The dramatic text presents the dramaas a range of verbal imagery. The language of drama can range between great extremes: onthe one hand, an intensely theatrical andritualistic manner; and on the other, an almostexact reproduction of real life. A dramaticmonologue is a type of lyrical poem or narrativepiece that has a person speaking to a selectlistener and revealing his character in adramatic situation.
Classification of DramaticPlays
In a strict sense, plays are classified as beingeither 
. The broaddifference between the two is in the ending.Comedies end happily. Tragedies end on anunhappy note. The tragedy acts as a purge. Itarouses our pity for the stricken one and our terror that we ourselves may be struck down. Asthe play closes we are washed clean of theseemotions and we feel better for the experience.A classical tragedy tells of a high and nobleperson who falls because of a "tragic flaw," aweakness in his own character. A domestictragedy concerns the lives of ordinary peoplebrought low by circumstances beyond their control. Domestic tragedy may be realisticseemingly true to life or naturalistic realistic andon the seamy side of life. A romantic comedy isa love story. The main characters are lovers; thesecondary characters are comic. In the end thelovers are always united. Farce is comedy at itsbroadest. Much fun and horseplay enliven theaction. The comedy of manners, or artificialcomedy, is subtle, witty, and often mocking.Sentimental comedy mixes sentimental emotionwith its humor. Melodrama has a plot filled withpathos and menacing threats by a villain, but itdoes include comic relief and has a happyending. It depends upon physical action rather than upon character probing. Tragic or comic,the action of the play comes from conflict of characters how the stage people react to eachother. These reactions make the play.
Elements of Drama
by: Christina Sheryl L. Sianghio
 Most simply a character is one of the personswho appears in the play, one of the dramatispersonae (literally, the persons of the play). Inanother sense of the term, the treatment of thecharacter is the basic part of the playwright'swork. Conventions of the period and theauthor's personal vision will affect the treatmentof character.Most plays contain major characters and minor characters. The delineation and development of major characters is essential to the play; theconflict between Hamlet and Claudius dependsupon the character of each. A minor character like Marcellus serves a specific function, toinform Hamlet of the appearance of his father'sghost. Once, that is done, he can depart inpeace, for we need not know what sort of person he is or what happens to him. Thedistinction between major and minor charactersis one of degree, as the character of Horatiomight illustrate.
 by: Eduardo M. Tajonera Jr.The interest generated by the plot varies for different kinds of plays. (See fiction elements onplot for more information regarding plot.) Theplot is usually structured with acts and scenes.Open conflict plays: rely on the suspense of astruggle in which the hero, through perhapsfight against all odds, is not doomed. Dramaticthesis: foreshadowing, in the form of ominoushints or symbolic incidents, conditions theaudience to expect certain logicaldevelopments. Coincidence: sudden reversal of fortune plays depict climatic ironies or misunderstandings. Dramatic irony: thefulfillment of a plan, action, or expectation in asurprising way, often opposite of what wasintended.

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