include medium-voltage (less than 50kV) power lines, low-voltage electrical substations andpole-mounted transformers, low-voltage (less than 1000V) distribution wiring and sometimeselectricity meters. This interface features transformers that "step down" the transmissionvoltages to lower voltages for the distribution systems. Transformers located along thedistribution lines further step down the voltage for household use. Substations also includeelectrical switchgear and circuit breakers to protect the transformers and the transmissionsystem from electrical failures on the distribution lines. Circuit breakers are also locatedalong the distribution lines to locally isolate electrical problems (such as short circuits causedby downed power lines).
According to World Resources Institute (WRI)
, India’s electricity grid has the highest
transmission and distribution losses in the world
a whopping 27%. Numbers published byvarious Indian government agencies put that number at 30%, 40% and greater than 40%.
This is attributed to technical losses (grid’s inefficiencies) and theft.
1.3 TRANSMISSION TOWER
The huge amount of power generated in a power station (hundreds of MW) is to betransported over a long distance (hundreds of kilometers) to load centers to cater power toconsumers with the help of transmission line and transmission towers as shown.
FIQURE 1.1 TRANSMISSION TOWER