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6 month training report on substation

6 month training report on substation

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Published by Piyush Bansal

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Piyush Bansal on Feb 09, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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It is situated in Sarabha Nagar 7.5 KM from Railway Station.Until 1978 it was transmitting132KV energy and on 29 July 1982 it was upgraded to 220KV.It is divided into four parts.1. 22KV switch yard2. 220/66KV switch yard3. 66/11KV switch yard4. 11KV control roomRING TYPE system is used for the supply purpose which has helped to produce moreregular power supply with reduced power cut and faults can easily eliminated withoutdifficulty.The 220 KV Ablowal grid has incoming supply of 220 KV from Gobindgarh and FagunMajra and it supplies the stepped down power of 66 KV to the areas of Rakhra, Pasiana,Patiala, DCW, Shakti Vihar and Sirhind Road and the stepped down power of 11 KV to theareas of Model Town, Jail Road, Dashmesh Nagar, Lung, Maltex(independent feeder),Bakshiwala and Asa majra.There are two 220/66 KV power transformers and two 66/11 KV transformers in the grid, allprotected by lightening arrestors and various other protection equipments. There are 2 busbars, one each for 66 KV output and 11 KV output.The 220/66 KV transformers are from the companies of ABB and BHEL, both with thecapacities of 50-75-100 MVA. Both have a C.T. ratio of 300-150/0.577-1-1-1 A. Thetransformer from BHEL was installed in 1982 and the one from ABB was installed in 2005.There are 2 11 KV capacitor banks from the companies of MAHAN and BHEL, each with acapacity of 2.722(=2 x 1.361) MVAR. Each capacitor has a rating of 137.234 pF. There are
24 such capacitors in each unit, with 3 such units in each capacitor bank, i.e. a total of 72capacitors in each capacitor bank 
Electric power transmission is the process in the transfer of electrical power to consumersand refers to the 'bulk' transfer of electrical power from one location to another. Transfer of electrical power from Generating Stations to the industrial, commercial or residentialconsumers is as important as power generation. Typically power transmission is between thepower plant and a substation in the vicinity of a populated area. To satisfy variousinstantaneous demands from consumers requires an uninterrupted flow of electricity. In theenergy delivery industry, the transmission system functions in much the same way as theinterstate highway system, serving as its major transport arteries. A power transmissionsystem is sometimes referred to as a "grid", which is a fully connected network of transmission lines. The Regional Power Grids are established for optimal utilization of thepower generated from the unevenly distributed power generating stations, by having intra-regional and inter-regional power exchanges depending upon day-to-day power availabilityand load conditions. The surplus power is transferred to the power deficit regions. Due to thelarge amount of electric power involved, transmission normally takes place at high voltage(110 kV or above). Electric power is usually sent over long distances through overheadpower transmission lines. Power is transmitted underground in densely populated areas, suchas large cities, but is typically avoided due to the high capacitive and resistive lossesincurred. Redundant paths and lines are provided so that power can be routed from anypower plant to any load center, through a variety of routes, based on the economics of thetransmission path and the cost of power.The grid consists of two infrastructures: the high-voltage transmission systems, which carryelectricity from the power plants and transmit it hundreds of miles away, and the lower-voltage distribution systems, which draw electricity from the transmission lines anddistribute it to individual customers. High voltage is used for transmission lines to minimizeelectrical losses; however, high voltage is impractical for distribution lines. Electricitydistribution is the penultimate process in the delivery of electric power, i.e. the part betweentransmission and user purchase from an electricity retailer. It is generally considered to
include medium-voltage (less than 50kV) power lines, low-voltage electrical substations andpole-mounted transformers, low-voltage (less than 1000V) distribution wiring and sometimeselectricity meters. This interface features transformers that "step down" the transmissionvoltages to lower voltages for the distribution systems. Transformers located along thedistribution lines further step down the voltage for household use. Substations also includeelectrical switchgear and circuit breakers to protect the transformers and the transmissionsystem from electrical failures on the distribution lines. Circuit breakers are also locatedalong the distribution lines to locally isolate electrical problems (such as short circuits causedby downed power lines).
 According to World Resources Institute (WRI)
 , India’s electricity grid has the highest 
transmission and distribution losses in the world 
a whopping 27%. Numbers published byvarious Indian government agencies put that number at 30%, 40% and greater than 40%.
This is attributed to technical losses (grid’s inefficiencies) and theft.
The huge amount of power generated in a power station (hundreds of MW) is to betransported over a long distance (hundreds of kilometers) to load centers to cater power toconsumers with the help of transmission line and transmission towers as shown.
Disc insulators.
Transmissionline (bareconductor)
Transmissiontower steelstructure

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