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Lecture 6-Stress in Complex Words Suffixes 2

Lecture 6-Stress in Complex Words Suffixes 2

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Phonetics and Phonology
Phonetics and Phonology

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Mohamed Kheider University of Biskra__
Section of English
__Second Year LMD
__Phonetics
 
Lectures 6 :
2.2 Stress-carrying suffixes:
 
the suffixes which attract
 
the primary stress placement tothe
final syllable
, they are also called stress-attracting suffixes, the most common ones are:
 
Rule-1
:
 
English words ending in
-
ade,
 
-aire,
-
ain, ee, eer, ese, -ette, esque, ique, oo, oon;
 
 
the stress will be on the last/final syllable
 – 
ULT STRESS- so the stress falls on the suffix.
 
Suffixes Examples for Transcription
 –
ade
Persuade /p
ə
ˈ
swe
ɪ
d/, Dissuade/d
ɪ
ˈ
swe
ɪ
d/,
 
 –
aire
Questionnaire / 
ˌ
kwest
 ʃə
ˈ
ne
ə
 /, Millionaire /m
ɪ
lj
ə
ˈ
ne
ə
 /,
 
 –
ain
Japanese / 
ˌ
ʤ
æp
ə
ˈ
ni
ː
z/ 
,
Journalese / 
ˌ
d
ʒɜ
ː
n
ə
ˈ
li
ː
z/ 
 
 –
ee
Coffee / 
ˈ
 ɒ
fi/, Committee /k 
əˈ
m
ɪ
ti/ (council)
,
 
/ˌkɒ
m
ɪˈ
ti
ː
 /, Absentee , Referee,
 
 –
eer
Engineer/ 
ˌ
en
ʤɪ
ˈ
n
ɪə
 / 
,
Volunteer / 
ˌ
v
 ɒ
l
ə
n
ˈ
t
ɪə
 / 
 
 –
ese
 
Vietnamese / 
ˌ
v
ɪ
etn
ə
ˈ
mi
ː
z/ , Portuguese
 
 / 
ˌ
p
ɔ
ː
tj
ʊ
ˈ
gi
ː
z, -t
 ʃʊ
-/ 
 
 –
ette
 
Silhouette / 
ˌ
s
ɪ
lu
ˈ
et/, Marionette / 
ˌ
mar
ɪə
ˈ
net/, Launderette /l
ɔ
ː
n
ˈ
dret/ 
 
 –
esque
 
Romanesque/ 
ˌ
r
əʊ
m
ə
ˈ
nesk/, Picturesque / 
ˌ
p
ɪ
kt
 ʃə
ˈ
resk/,Arabesque
 
 / 
ˌ
ær
ə
ˈ
besk/ 
 
 –
ique
 
Critique /kr
ɪ
ˈ
ti
ː
k/, Technique /tek 
ˈ
ni
ː
k/, Unique /ju
ːˈ
ni
ː
k/ 
 
 –
oo
 
Kangaroo
 
 / 
ˌ
ŋgə
ˈ
ru
ː
 /, Shampoo / 
 ʃ 
æm
ˈ
pu
ː
 / , Waterloo / 
ˌ
w
ɔ
ː
t
ə
t
ˈ
lu
ː
 / 
 
 –
oon
 
Typhoon
 
 /ta
ɪ
ˈ
fu
ː
n/ , Balloon /b
ə
ˈ
lu
ː
n/,
Exceptions:
Igloo
 
 / 
ˈ
ɪ
glu
ː
 /, Cuckoo
/
ˈ
ʊ
ku
ː
/
, Decade
 
 / 
ˈ
deke
ɪ
d/, Comrade / 
ˈ
 ɒ
mre
ɪ
d/.
 
2.3. Stress-shifting suffixes:
 
the affixation of the suffix causes a change of the primarystress from one syllable of the stem to another one, but the stress remains in the stem, it oftenmoves immediately to the syllable before the suffix. So the stress falls on one of the stemsyllables before the suffix added to the stem.
2.3.1. Stress-shifting suffixes causing PENULT STRESS
:
 
 
Rule-2
:
 
English words ending in
 –
ic,
 –
sion, and
 –
tion;
 
the stress will be on the secondsyllable from the end
 – 
PENULT STRESS
 – 
so on the syllable just before the suffix.Suffix-ending
Examples for Transcription
 
 –
ic
Athletic
 
 /æ
θ
ˈ
let
ɪ
k/ 
,
Economic
 
 / 
ˌ
i
ː
ə
ˈ
n
 ɒ
m
ɪ
k/ 
,
Graphic/ 
ˈ
græf 
ɪ
k/ 
,
Geographic / 
ˌ
ʤ
i
ə
ˈ
gæf 
ɪ
k/ 
,
Philosophic/ 
ˌ
ɪ
l
ə
ˈ
s
 ɒ
ɪ
k/ 
,
Psychologic / 
ˌ
sa
ɪ
ə
ˈ
l
 ɒʤɪ
k/ 
,
Specific /sp
ə
ˈ
s
ɪ
ɪ
k/ 
,
Scientific
 
 / 
ˌ
sa
ɪə
n
ˈ
t
ɪ
ɪ
k/ 
,
Syntactic
 
 /s
ɪ
n
ˈ
tækt
ɪ
k/ 
,
Semiotics / 
ˌ
semi
ˈ
 ɒ
t
ɪ
ks/ 
,
Theoretic / 
θɪə
ˈ
ret
ɪ
k/ 
,
Linguistics /l
ɪŋ
ˈ
gw
ɪ
st
ɪ
ks/ 
,
Semantics
 
 /s
ɪ
ˈ
mænt
ɪ
ks/ 
,
Phonetics /f 
ə
ˈ
net
ɪ
ks/,
 –
sion
Television / tel
ɪ
ˈ
v
ɪʒ
 / 
,
Revision
 
 /r
ɪ
ˈ
v
ɪʒ
 / 
,
Elision
 
 / 
ɪ
ˈ
l
ɪʒ
 /, Erosion / 
ɪ
ˈ
r
əʊʒ
 / 
 
 –
tion
 
Relation /r
ɪ
ˈ
le
ɪʃ 
 / 
,
Association / 
ə
ˌ
s
əʊ
s
ɪ
ˈ
e
ɪʃ 
 / 
,
participation
 
 /p
ɑ
ːˌ
t
ɪ
s
ɪ
ˈ
pe
ɪʃ 
 / 
 Most common exceptions:
Arabic/ 
ˈ
ær
ə
b
ɪ
k/ 
,
Arithmetic/ 
ə
ˈ
r
ɪθmə
t
ɪ
k/ 
,
Arsenic/ 
ˈ
ɑ
ː
s
ə
n
ɪ
k/ 
,
Heretic
 
 / 
ˈ
her
ɪ
t
ɪ
k/ 
,
Catholic / 
ˈ
θə
l
ɪ
k/ 
,
Lunatic / 
ˈ
lu
ː
n
ə
t
ɪ
k/ 
,
Politic/ 
ˈ
p
 ɒ
l
ɪ
t
ɪ
k/ 
,
Rhetoric / 
ˈ
ret
ə
r
ɪ
k/.
 
STRESS PLACEMENT IN COMPLEX WORDS
Stress-Carrying Suffixes & Stress-Shifting Suffixes
Page 3
 
2.3.2- Stress on the 2nd from the end:
Penult Stress
The ‘’ LION’’
rule,
English words ending in letter
i ,
letter
e
or letter
 
u
followed by anynumber of vowels (
V n
°
)
,
optionally followed by any number of consonants (
C n
°
) andoptionally by silent letter
e
 
,
stress the will be on the penult syllable
;
 
2
nd
syllable from the end
Suffixes beginning with: letter
i
+ V n
°
+ (C n
°
) + (Silent
e)
 –
ion
Gene
ra
tion
 
 / 
 
ˌ
d
ʒ
en
ə
ˈ
re
ɪʃ 
 / , Investigation Consti
tu
tion
 
 / 
ˌ
 ɒ
nst
ɪ
ˈ
tju
ː
 ʃ 
 / 
 –
ia
Co
lum
bia
 
 /k 
ə
ˈ
l
ʌ
mb
ɪə
 / ,
Me
dia
 
 / 
ˈ
m
d
ɪə
 / 
 
Cafe
te
ria
 
 / 
ˌ
kæf 
ə
ˈ
t
ɪə
r
ɪə
 / 
 –
ial
In
dus
trial
 
 / 
ɪ
n
ˈ
d
ʌ
str
ɪə
l/ 
, Se
rial / 
ˈ
s
ɪə
-,
ˈ
s
ɪ
ri
ə
l/ Resi
den
tial
 
 / 
ˌ
rez
ɪ
ˈ
den
 ʃə
l/ 
 –
ian
His
tor
ian
/h
ɪ
ˈ
st
ɔ
ː
r
ɪə
n/ Al
ger
ian /æl
ˈ
d
ʒɪə
r
ɪə
n/ Li
bra
rian /la
ɪ
ˈ
bre
ə
r
ɪə
n/ 
 –
iance
Lu
xu
riance
 
 /l
ʌ
g
ˈ
ʒʊə
r
ɪə
ns/ In
sou
ciance / 
ɪ
n
ˈ
su
ː
s
ɪə
ns/ 
 –
iar
Fa
mi
liar
 
 /f 
ə
ˈ
m
ɪ
l
ɪə
 / Pe
cu
liar/p
ɪ
ˈ
kju
ː
l
ɪə
 / 
 –
ience
E
xpe
rience
 
 / 
ɪ
ˈ
sp
ɪə
r
ɪə
ns/ 
Im
patience
 
 / 
ˈ
ɪ
mpe
ɪʃə
ns/ 
 –
ient
Pro
fi
cient /pr
ə
ˈ
ɪʃə
nt/,
an
cient / 
ˈ
e
ɪ
n
 ʃə
nt/ Su
ffi
cient
 
 //s
ə
ˈ
ɪʃə
nt/ 
 
 –
ious
Am
bi
tious /æm
ˈ
b
ɪʃə
s/ 
, cau
tious
 
 / 
ˈ
ɔ
ː
 ʃə
s/ Super
sti
tious / 
ˌ
su
ː
p
ə
ˈ
st
ɪʃə
s/ 
 –
ior
Inferior / 
ɪ
n
ˈ
ɪə
r
ɪə
 /,
Se
nior / 
ˈ
si
ː
n
ɪə
 / Su
pe
rior/su
ːˈ
p
ɪə
r
ɪə
,/sju
ːˈ
p
ɪə
r
ɪə
 / 
 –
iom / 
 –
iot Id
iom / 
ˈ
ɪ
d
ɪə
m/ 
Id
iot/ 
ˈ
ɪ
d
ɪə
t/ 
 –
ium
Gym
na
sium /d
ʒɪ
m
ˈ
ne
ɪ
z
ɪə
m/ ; Alu
min
ium / 
ˌ
æl
ʊ
ˈ
m
ɪ
n
ɪə
m/ , A
qua
rium / 
ə
ˈ
kwe
ə
r
ɪə
m/ 
Mu
seum
 /mju
ːˈ
zi
ː
ə
m/,
Me
dium
  / 
ˈ
mi
ː
d
ɪə
m/,
U
ran
ium/j
ʊ
ˈ
re
ɪ
n
ɪə
m/ 
Suffixes beginning with: letter
e
+ V nr + (C nr) + (Silent
e)
 –
ea A
rea
 
 / 
ˈ
e
ə
r
ɪə
 / 
Gui
nea / 
ˈ
g
ɪ
ni/ 
 –
eal Ce
real / 
ˈ
s
ɪə
r
ɪə
l/,
Li
neal / 
ˈ
l
ɪ
n
ɪə
l/ 
 
La
ryn
geal
 
 /l
ə
ˈ
r
ɪ
nd
ʒɪə
l/ 
 –
ear Li
near / 
ˈ
l
ɪ
n
ɪə
(r)/ 
 –
ean
Mediter
ra
nean
 
 / 
ˌ
med
ɪ
t
ə
ˈ
re
ɪ
n
ɪə
n/ 
Chi
lean
 
 / 
ˈ
t
 ʃɪ
l
ɪə
n/ 
;
Euro
pe
an
ˌ
 j
ʊə
r
ə
ˈ
pi
ː
ə
n/;Ko
re
an /k 
ə
ˈ
ri
ː
ə
n/.
 –
eous
Cou
ra
geous
 
 /k 
ə
ˈ
re
ɪ
d
ʒə
s/ Simul
ta
neous
 
 / 
ˌ
s
ɪ
m
ə
l
ˈ
te
ɪ
n
ɪə
s/ 
Common Exceptions: I
dea
 
 /a
ɪ
ˈ
d
ɪə
 / 
;
 
I
deal /a
ɪ
ˈ
d
ɪə
l/ 
;
 
or
deal
/
ɔ
ːˈ
di
ː
l/ 
.
 
Suffixes beginning with: letter
u
+ V nr + (C nr) + (Silent
e)
 –
ual
Ha
bit
ual
 
 /h
ə
ˈ
b
ɪ
t
 ʃ 
u
ə
l/ Per
pet
ual
 
 /p
ə
ˈ
pet
 ʃ 
u
ə
l/ 
 –
uar Ja
guar
 
 / 
ˈ
d
ʒ
æ
g
 j
ʊə
(r)/ 
 –
uous
Su
per
fluous
 
 /su
ːˈ
p
ɜ
ː
flu
ə
s/ Am
big
uous
 
 /æm
ˈ
b
ɪ
g
 ju
ə
s/ 
2.3 The verbal suffix
 – 
ish:
Penult stress. 
This is a stress-shifting suffix found only in
verbs (
we can find the suffix
 – 
ish with
 
adjective,but it is a neutral suffix like in:
 
Child
 – 
Childish
ˈ
t
 ʃ 
a
ɪ
ld
ɪʃ 
 / 
). 
 
Rule:
English
verbs
ending in
 –
ish
carry the stress on the penult syllable, before this suffix
.E.g:
Banish / 
ˈ
bæn
ɪʃ 
 / 
,
Nourish / 
ˈ
n
ʌ
r
ɪʃ 
 / 
,
Polish / 
ˈ
p
 ɒ
l
ɪʃ 
 / 
,
Cherish / 
ˈ
t
 ʃ 
er
ɪʃ 
 / 
,
Publish / 
ˈ
p
ʌ
bl
ɪʃ 
 / 
.
 Abolish / 
ə
ˈ
b
 ɒ
l
ɪʃ 
 / 
,
 
Distinguish/d
ɪ
ˈ
st
ɪŋ
g
w
ɪʃ 
 / 
,
Demolish/d
ɪ
ˈ
m
 ɒ
l
ɪʃ 
 / 
,
Establish/ 
ɪ
ˈ
stæbl
ɪʃ 
 / 
,
Fetish / 
ˈ
fe
t
ɪʃ 
 / 
Exception:
The only one exception to this rule is the verb
 
im
po
verish
’ /
ɪ
m
ˈ
p
 ɒ
v
ə
r
ɪʃ 
 / which isstresse on the
3
rd
syllable instead of the
2
nd
one from the end.
 
Page 4
 
Mohamed Kheider University of Biskra__
Section of English
__Second Year LMD
__Phonetics
 
2.4. Stress on the ante-penultimate syllable:
 
(ante-penultimate = third from the end)
 
Rule 3
:
English words ending in
 –
a
cy,
 –
al,
 
 –
i
ty,
 –
ety
,
 –
itude and ending in
 –
try;
 
the
 
stress will be on the third syllable from the end
 –
ANTEPENULT STRESS
 –
 
Examples:
 –
acy
Aristocracy / 

 /, democracy / d
ɪ
ˈ
m
 ɒ
k.r
ə
.si /, Pharmacy / 

 /, Prophecy / 
ˈ
pr
 ɒ
ə
si/ , Supremacy / su
ːˈ
prem
ə
si
 / 
 
 –
al
Critical / 
ˈ
kr
ɪ
t
ɪ
ə
l/, Geological / 
ˌ
d
ʒ
i
ə
ˈ
l
 ɒ
d
ʒɪ
ə
l/, Environmental, Political
 
 –
ity,
 
 –
ety
Ambiguity, Creativity, Humanity, credibility / 
ˌ
kred
ɪ
ˈ
b
ɪ
l
ɪ
ti/, dependability /d
ɪ
pend
ɪ
ˈ
b
ɪ
l
ɪ
ti/, necessity /n
ə
ˈ
ses
ɪ
ti/, Opportunity, purity, Reality,University / 
ˌ
 ju
ː
n
ɪ
ˈ
v
ɜ
ː
s
ɪ
ti/, society, propriety /pr

 /, variety
 / 

.
 
 –
itude
 
Attitude / 

 /, Aptitude
/

, Gratitude, Latitude, Magnitude.
 –
try
Geometry
 / 

, Infantry / 

 /, Poetry, Peasantry / 

 /.
2.4.2. Stress on the ante-penultimate syllable:
(ante-penultimate = 3
rd
from the end)
 
Rule 4:
English words ending in
 –
graphy,
 –
logy, and
 –
meter, will receive the primary
 
stress on the antepenultimate syllable ( 3
rd
syllable from the end).
Examples:
 –
graphy
Bibliography / 
ˌ
b
ɪ
bl
ɪ
ˈ
 ɒ
gr
ə
fi/, Demography /d
ɪ
ˈ
m
 ɒ
g.r
ə
.fi/, Geology / 
ʤɪ
ˈ
 ɒ
l
əʤ
i/, Geography /d
ʒɪ
ˈ
 ɒ
gr
ə
fi/, Orthography / 
ɔ
ː
ˈ
θɒ
gr
ə
fi/, Photography /f 
ə
ˈ
t
 ɒ
g.r
ə
.fi/, Xerography /z
ɪə
ˈ
r
 ɒ
gr
ə
fi/ 
 –
logy
Apology
 /

 /
, Archeology / 

 /, Anthology

 /,Geology / 
ʤɪ
ˈ
 ɒ
l
əʤ
i/, Methodology
/

 /
, Psychology /sa
ɪ
ˈ
 ɒ
l
ə
d
ʒ
i/, Phonology /f 
ə
ʊ 
ˈ
n
 ɒ
l
ə
d
ʒ
i/, Sociology / 
s
əʊ
 
i
ˈ
 ɒ
l
ə
d
ʒ
i, si-/ 
 –
meter
Barometer
/

, Parameter / 

 /, Thermometer / 

 
2.4.3. Verbal endings causing Antepenult stress:
( 3
rd
from the end)
 
Rule 5:
English verbs of three syllable or more ending in
 –
ate,
 –
ize (ise) or
 –
fy, will
 
have the primary stress on the antepenultimate syllable ( 3
rd
from the end).
Examples:
 –
ate
Calculate
 /

 /
, Discriminate
 /
 
d
ɪ
ˈ
skr
ɪ
m
ɪ
ne
ɪ
t
 /
, Evaluate
 /
ɪ
ˈ
væljue
ɪ
t
 /
,Generate
 /

 /
, Hibernate
 /

 /
,
 
Investigate
 /
ɪ
n
ˈ
vest
ɪ
ge
ɪ
t
 /
,Legitimate
 /
l
ə
ˈ
d
ʒɪ
t
ɪ
me
ɪ
t
 /
,
 
Participate
 /
p
ɑ
ːˈ
t
ɪ
s
ɪ
pe
ɪ
t
 /
, separate
 /
ˈ
sep
ə
re
ɪ
t
 /
.
 
 –
ize (ise)
Analyse
/
ˈ
æn
ə
la
ɪ
z
/
, Civilize
/

/
, Democratize
/

/
,organize
 
 /

 /
, Paralyse
 
/
ˈ
pær
ə
la
ɪ
z
/
, publicise, utilise
 
/
ˈ
 ju
ː
t
ɪ
la
ɪ
z
/
 
 –
fy
Clarify, dignify, identify
/
a
ɪ
ˈ
dent
ɪ
fa
ɪ
/
, electrify, exemplify, nullify
/
ˈ
n
ʌ
l
ɪ
fa
ɪ
/
purify / 

 /, qualify
/
ˈ
kw
 ɒ
l
ɪ
fa
ɪ
/,
signify, simplify, solidify
 / 

 
Page 5

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