USAF CTOL version, $32 million forthe Marine STOVL variant and $34million for the Navy's CV model.The Navy's requirement for a "first-day-of-the-war" strike aircraft represents perhaps the biggest stretch for theJAST designers, requiring significantlygreater range than that of die latest F-18E/F and low-observability akin to thatof die Lockheed Martin F-117. Theresulting aircraft will be larger than theUSAF'sF-16.All the teams have based dieir concept-demonstration aircraft around thePratt & Whitney Fl 19 engine underdevelopment for the LockheedMartin/Boeing F-22, but General Electric islikely to be given an opportunity to compete topower production aircraft. The company isstudying derivatives of both its present Fl 10and the advanced F120.
A 94%-scale YF119-powered model of Boeing'sSTOVL configuration is undergoing criticalground-effect testing at the company's Tulaliptest site north of Seattle. "Results of the Tulaliptest to date have confirmed earlier design predictions and small-scale model tests," saysBoeing, which built the outdoor test-site
ically for the JAST programme. The companysays that it is on schedule to complete morethan 5,300h of windtunnel and odier testing ofits JAST concept by March 1996, with some4,70()h of tests amassed by early December.Boeing is the only JAST competitor to adopta direct-lift concept for the STOVL variant.The Harrier-style, vectored-thrust, propulsionsystem does not incorporate a lift fan or liftengine to provide additional vertical thrust. Thedirect-lift option "...was the simplest and thecheapest", says JAST programme managerMickey Michellich.Studies indicated that direct lift was the mostaffordable means of achieving the necessary air-frame-design compromise between the CTOLand STOVL variants, says Boeing. Althoughdie STOVL requirement compromised theCTOL capability, the long range required forthe Navy role meant that the STOVL designwas itself
compromise. "If I had gone away todesign a STOVL-only aircraft, I might havecome back with another solution, but [directlift] was the best way of meeting die multi-roleneeds," Michellich says. Although direct liftoffers benefits in terms of reduced cost andcomplexity, it has inherent disadvantages. Thesingle engine must provide the dirust neededfor vertical landing and there is little margin forweight growth. Boeing tackled this by "...working the hell out of the requirement" for anempty weight of less than 11,000kg, and byincreasing the power available from the Fl 19.The volumetric efficiency of Boeing's compact blended-delta airframe results in reducedweight and additional reductions will accrue
Lockheed Martins design draws on F-22 experience
from the use of advanced materials and manufacturing processes. The aircraft will use
more composites than the F-22", whichis 24% composites by structural weight, according to MichellichThe Boeing design uses a derivative of theFl 19 thought to be capable of producing morethan 133kN (30,0001b) of unreheated thrust,achieved by using a redesigned fan and modifiedlow-pressure turbine to increase non-afterburning performance. A two-dimensional, pitch-vectoring, exhaust nozzle
used in wingborne flight.In vertical-lift mode, engine exhaust is diverted forward by
blocker valve and ducted to twoswivelling nozzles located at the aircraft's centreof gravity. These nozzles are rotated aft through90° and retracted into the fuselage to reducedrag and radar signature in forward flight Thenozzles also vector forward a few degrees tohelp slow the aircraft during the transition intothe hover."We gently close one [nozzle) and open upthe other during the transition," Michellichsays. A proprietary reaction-control systemprovides pitch, roll and yaw control in thehover. The large chin inlet is located well forward because the engine itself is mounted,Harrier-style, just behind the cockpit. Theinlet increases in area for take-off and landing,opening to reveal an auxiliary intake whichincreases engine airflow, and performance, forSTOVL operation.To minimise hot-gas re-ingestion and jet-induced "suck down", two of the major ground-effect problems associated with STOVL, dieBoeing design has a high wing and sits on a tallundercarriage. "We had a lot of folks say wecouldn't use a delta because of the ground-effectissue, but we have concluded that, since ourdesign is different, it was not a constraining factor," Michellich says.To make sure, the design has undergone rigorous model testing, including a study of hot-gas re-ingestion effects conducted byRolls-Royce at Bristol in the UK. Boeing saysdiat die furiously paced and expansive test programme is now paying dividends, allowing theteam to define the design widi more confidence,earlier than expected.The "fat" wing is key to die multi-role capability of the Boeing design. "We end upwidi a huge range/payload, at least double that of any of die aircraft you're trying to replace. Our fuel fraction [fuel as apercentage of all-up weight] is 40%,"says Michellich, who adds: "We carrymore fuel [internally] than any of dieodier aircraft with external tanks. Theresult is a range/payload rough 2.5 timesthat of theF-16/F-18 class."Boeing estimates that its four JASTdesign variants will have 90% commonality by parts and more than 80% bycost. External dimensions will be identical for all versions. The Navy's CV variant will have "localised structural beefing up",an arrestor hook and stronger undercarriage;the USMC and RN versions will have theSTOVL hardware, but no tailhook or strengthened gear; while the USAF variant will be thesimplest, widi no STOVL or CV features.Boeing says that its "...unique design integration and a modular approach has allowed us tokeep weight penalties for the Air Force andMarine versions to zero".
An 86%-scale model of Lockheed Martin'sSTOVL configuration has been installed inthe 24 x 36m windtunnel at NASA Ames, inCalifornia, and powered hover and transitiontests are to begin in mid-December. Hovertesting on an outdoor test-stand at Ames hasbeen completed with "better than expected"results, says JAST programme manager DaveWheaton.The outdoor tests verified thrust levels anddetermined re-ingestion and suck-down effectsassociated with Lockheed Martin's shaft-drivenlift-fan STOVL configuration. In this concept,the single engine — a P&W F100 in the large-scale model — provides both cruise propulsionand vertical thrust and drives a lift fan mountedbehind the cockpit."Re-ingestion was an issue," says Wheaton,"but we did not have any." Smoke tests andinfra-red photography have revealed that thecold flow from the lift fan creates an "airdam" which keeps the hot engine-exhaust gasfrom moving forward and entering the inlets.The model was hovered at 1ft (0.3m) altitudefor 30min "several times, with no ingestion",he says.Lockheed Martin built the model under theUS Advanced Research Projects Agency's(ARPA) Advanced Short Take-Off and Landing(ASTOVL) technology-demonstration, whichhas been merged with the JAST effort.Refinement of the design, which is now thebasis for the company's JAST configuration, hascontinued using six different windtunnel mod
including tests with conventional tail-surfaces as an alternative to die original foreplanes.Wheaton says that the concept-demonstrator aircraft will be powered by a deriva- •
FLIGHT INTERNATIONAL 13 - 19 December 199527