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Modals

Modals

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AL AZHAR HIGH SCHOOL: MODAL (DEFECTIVE) VERBSModal verbs of probability:
Idea:Meaning:Past:Present:Future:Examples:
Certainty (100%)Its certain.
Must/ will
have +past participle
Must have
been+gerund(continuousactions)
Must/will+
bare infinitiveBob is absent He
must be
ill. (present)Bob was absent. He
must have been
ill.(past)The streets are wet it must have been raining.(pastcont).The sky is cloudy. It
will
rain tomorrow.(future)Possibility (50%)It’s possible
Can /May have
+past participle
Can /may havebeen
+ gerundCan/ may+bare infinitiveThe sky is cloudy. It
can /may rain
this evening.(presentor future)The streets are wet. it
can/ may / might have rained
last night.(past)Impossibility (0%certainty)It is impossible
Can’t have
+pastparticiple
Can’t have been
+gerund + CCan’t/ won’t +bare infinitiveThis student is stupid and lazy. He
won’t pass
his exam.(future)There are no clouds in the sky. It
can’t rain
today.(present)I am sure that man is innocent. He
can’t have
donesomething wrong.(past)
Modal verbs with other meanings:Idea:Meaning:Past:Present:Future:Examples:Obligation:Necessity:
It isobligatory /compulsory /necessary.
Had to..
Must…………….Have / has to…
Need(s) to……Will have to……
Will need to……1. you
must/ have to
work very hard.(present)2. he
will have to work
hard (future)3. We
had to work
hard last year.(past)
Advice / moralobligation
It’s advisable /preferable
Should/ ought tohave
+ pastparticiple
Should…………
Ought to………Had better……Should…………Ought to………Had better……
1.
Students
should /ought to work
hard.(present/future)
2.
Students
should have/ought tohave
worked hard last year.( past)
Advice / moralobligation notto
..It’s notgood/ / It’sundesirableShouldn’t have+past participle..Shouldn’t………Oughtn’t to……Had better notShouldn’t………Oughtn’t to……Had better not…
1.
you
shouldn’t/ oughtn’t to
eata lot.(present or future)
2.
you
shouldn’t
/
oughtn’t to
have eaten a lot.(past)
Prohibition :
.It’sforbidden. /notpermitted /not allowedWas /were notallowed /permitted to..Mustn’t…………Can’t………….May not………Mustn’t……….Can’t………….May not………
1.
Moslems
mustn’t
drink wine.
2.
Moslems
can’t
drink wine.
3.
Moslems
may not
drink wine.
4.
women
were not allowed to go
out.
Permission
:It’s permitted./ allowedWas / were allowed(permitted) to..May ……………Can……………..Could………….Might………….May ……………Can……………..Could………….Might…………
1.
You
can
use calculators in Math.
2.
You
may
use calculators in Math
3.
You
could
use calculators inMath
4.
You
might
use calculators inMath
Lack of necessity:
It’s(was) notnecessaryDid not have to..Needn’t have +past participle..Needn’t………Don’t have to..Don’t need toDoesn’t have to..Doesn’t needto..Needn’t…….Won’t have toWon’t needto…..1. We
needn’t
go out today.2. We
don’t have to
go out today.3. He
doesn’t have to
see that film.
5.
You
won’t have to
learngeography at university.
6.
he
did not need
to see the film.(he did not see it)
7.
he
needn’t have
 
seen
the film.(he saw it but he wasted time)
 
Match the sentences in « A » with their definitions in « B » :« A »« B »
1.People can’t feed animals in a zoo.2.I wonder if I could take your bike to go shopping this afternoon.3.It was wrong of john to leave his job.4.Scientists had better not experiment on animals that are likely toget extinct.5.That man must have been a soldier.6.With the future threat of drought some countries will have to makewar to get more fresh water.
7.
 They may have gone to the cinema.8.To go on a well balanced diet, a person ought to consume lessgreasy food.9.You don’t have to believe anything advertisers say.10.Everybody must abide by the law.11.Perhaps, he will win the tournament.12.I have just seen your brother in the street. He can’t have traveledto another town.
a)
It’s (was)advisable.
b)
It’s possible.
c)
It’s forbidden
d)
It’s permitted
e)
It’s impossible
f)
It’s (was)notdesirable
g)
It’s compulsory
h)
It’s certain.
i)
It’s not necessary.
 j)
It will benecessary.Fill in the gaps with appropriate modal verbs :
1.You ……………. Take your umbrella. It’s not raining out.2.Before entering a mosque, people…………take off their shoes.3.Drivers …………drive at 120 km an hour in motorways but they………….exceed 40 km/ hinside urban areas.4.To save electricity we ……………….use low-wattage- bulbs.5.The car looks very dirty now. you …………….cleaned it this morning
6.
My father…………let me go on that excursion to Tangiers but I’m not so certain.7.Sportsmen ………………….take stimulants during sporting events.8.If you choose a medical career after your Baccalaureate, you …………………….stay atuniversity for nine years.9.With the progress of science, students ………………. go to school anymore. They ………only learn what they want in their homes.10.I asked Paul to lend me his bike but he didn’t. he …………………forgotten.
11.
Children……………..watch indecent pictures on T.V; therefore, we …………..help them seegood programs.
12.
Workers ………………..take a two-week rest when they finish their jobs.
13.
 You ………………………………………bought more vegetables. The fridge is so full.
14.
Ibn Battuta traveled a lot. He ……………………………….………… known many people
The present perfect: (… present of to have + past participle…) e.g. regular verbs:
 play, visit
. Irregular verbs:
write, do
 affirmativeNégative:Interrogative:Time indicators :
IYou
have
We
ve
they
past participle
: played…visited…done…..writtenIyou
have not
We
haven’t
they
past participle:
 played…visited…done…..writtenI
Have
you +
past participle
….
?
Wethey….., yet? not….yet.….just…. …already…….never…This …Today…For +period of timeSince +specific dateSo far / lately/ recently.He
has
She
’s
itHe
has not
She
hasn’t
itHe
Has
she +
past participle:…?
it
Give the correct form of the verbs between brackets:
1. Mark and Jane (finish)…………………………..their homework.2. Amina (forget)………………………………….her friend’s address at home.
 
3. We (see) ……………………………………….that film.4. I ( write )………………………………………two letters to my cousin .5. The children (eat)……………………………..a lot of chocolate.6. My brother (buy)……………………………….a new jacket.
Put the following sentences in the negative form:Example
: I have done the housework I haven’t done the housework 1. I have read that book. …………………………………………………………………..2. Dris has flown to Paris. …………………………………………………………………..3. It has stopped raining. ………………………………………………………………….4. That boy has broken the kitchen window. ………………………………………………………………….5. You have understood the text. ………………………………………………………………….
Write the following sentences in the interrogative form:
Example:
She has come by bus.
Has
she
come
by bus?
1. I’ve drunk a lot of lemonade. …………………………………………………………………2. They have been to the cinema. …………………………………………………………………3. Mom has swept the entire house. …………………………………………………………………4. Fred has told his parents about his Fiancée. …………………………………………………………………5. He hasn’t given me any money. …………………………………………………………………
 
The present perfect tense with : yet, just , already, ever and never:
Affirmative:Négative:Interrogative:
I have
 just
cleaned the blackboard.We have
already
eaten
our lunch
.I haven’t finished
this lesson
 
yet.
I have
never 
smoked
a cigarette
.Have you been
to Casablanca
 
yet?
Have you
ever 
driven
a car 
?
Fill in the gaps with : yet, just , already, never or ever:
1. Workers have ………………….left their work. They are going home now.2. I have …………………….been to Casa several times but I have…………………..been to France.3. Has your father ………………….taken you to see the aquarium?4. We have ……………………….learned Spanish at school.5. Have you done your homework, …………….?6. The World Cup finals haven’t started ……………. They will start next June.
The present perfect tense with for and since:..for +period of time.since +specific date or time in the pastExamples:
I have studied English
for three years
I have studied English
since I entered high schoolFill in the blanks with “for” or “since”:
1.We haven’t seen that movie …….a long time.2.Helga and Jack have been married……….they were 17.3.She has stayed in a hotel ……..the weekend.4.I haven’t eaten a pizza……..I came back from Italy.5.They have lived in that house ……….several years
The present perfect continuous:Affirmative:Negative:Interrogative:
He/she/ it
has been…..ing 
I/you/ we/ they
have
been….
ing
He/she/ it
has not been…….ing…..
I/you/ we/ they
have not been..ing. Has
he/she /it
been …ing…..? Have
I/you/ we/ they been …?The present perfect continuous is used to stress that the action has been longer (i.e. more time consuming)
Examples:
1. The boy’s clothes are dirty. He
has been playing 
in the mud.2. Mom is so tired because she
has been cleaning 
the house.3. You look very wet.
 Have
you
been walking 
in the rain?4. We
haven’t been listening 
to you because there is too much noise.
Review of tenses:
 
( mixed types)

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