2It is hard to believe that only in the past 250 years, we have begun to learn how toreliably measure time and space. Without reliable measurements, it is next to impossibleto travel long distances at sea and expect to arrive safely and on time, to navigate rockywaters, or to survey new land.Originally the ability to find one’s longitude was primarily valuable to shipsneeding to navigate their way to distant coasts for trade. Today, since it has becomemuch easier to determine one’s location, this information has become useful in manyother aspects of our lives.With so much data now available, from so many different sources, a relativelynew field has developed, that is information science. Information science is the field thatspecializes in organizing data into information that is useful to meet one’s goals.Examples of this can be found everywhere in today’s data-centered world. When you usea library’s card catalog system, you are using an information system. Typically aninformation system can be used to take large amounts of data, such as marketingresearch, and analyze it so it can lead a manager to optimal business decisions.Geographical data, such was latitude and longitude, can be stored with otherinformation denoting landmarks or features such as trade routes. With the advent of thecomputer and computerized information science, this geographical information can beused to create many new ways to use and to apply the spatial data. Many newinformation systems incorporating geospatial information are being created in the fieldsof ecology, civil engineering, and marketing. This growth in geospatial databases hasestablished a rationale for information science professionals to understand the basics andthe history of latitude and longitude.