Dependence of Land Stability on Applied MiningTechnology
Veiko KaruTallinn University of Technologyveiko.firstname.lastname@example.org
– Oil shale is obtained in Estonia with open cast orunderground mining. In case of open cast method the areastabilizes within a few years and a new forest is planted on thesite. The result of underground mining is undermined land.There are different types of undermined land: steady land,stable land, quasistable land, and subsided land. There exists anumber of methods for undermined land evaluation. The firstcondition for choosing an evaluation method is the informationabout time, location and method of mining. When the conditionis fulfilled, one has to select a suitable evaluation method for aconcrete study area. Considering the aforementioned,Department of Mining in Tallinn University of Technology hasdeveloped a method and a computer program to evaluate theundermined land areas and to describe the mining impact area.The method and program enable to evaluate the state of undermined land and the risks as well as to plan land utilizationand construction works.
The principal mining regions of Estonia are: Lääne-Harju(Vasalemma, Padise, Harku, etc. deposits), Ida-Harju(Lasnamäe, Väo, Maardu, etc. deposits), Kunda-Rakvere(Toolse, Ubja, Aru, etc. deposits) and Ida-Viru (Estonian oilshale deposit, peat deposit of Puhatu and many locations formining building material). The greatest number of problemsis faced in old mining regions, while the region is beingdeveloped according to the “State plan for utilization of oilshale, 2008-2015”, as it is difficult to predict the behaviour of the land in the construction areas utilized according to theplan. On the other hand, the plan contains a design for thedevelopment of sustainable mining environment in theseregions. Mining environment is understood as the entity of resources (deposits and groundwater), land (agricultural andhousing land), engineering, and technology.In order to ensure the stability and safety of constructions,the results of investigations for detailed planning mustprovide the input for the designation of primary risk factorsand for efficient and economical realisation of plannedconstruction works (building and civil engineering works) .In Estonia oil shale is obtained with open cast orunderground mining. When the oil shale area is excavatedwith open cast method, it stabilizes within a few years and anew forest is planted on the site. Undermined land andsurrounding land can be described in following ways: steadyland, stable land, quasistable land, and subsided land .
is located on mining claims but is unminedbecause of protective or remnant pillars. The area of thesteady land is always smaller than the area of the pillar.
is located in pillar-protected areas. Stable landcovers the rooms which pillars were not mined beforeabandoning and where the thickness of the hard roof remainsin the range of 10...35 m. Secondary subsidences may occurin the areas with thinner limestone cover.
and area emerges in places where pillarswere solid during mining but may break afterwards. All theunstable room-and-pillar mining area is quasistable.Quasistable areas also occur near the sides of mined longwallmining areas, above drifts, adits, and rooms in low-depthmining area.
is located above the hand-mined area whereadvancing and retreating mining and longwall mining withdouble-unit-face areas were used. The relief of subsided landdepends on the roof structure as well as the quantity andquality of the filling material.Underground mined areas are complex and it is difficult topredict their stability – a problem faced not only in Estonia,but in the whole world [
. Stability of underground minedareas depends on many factors (extraction time, technology,the thickness of oil shale and many others), some of which areknown and some of which are very difficult to identify oreven remain unknown [
.Determination of land stability conditions in Estonianunderground mined areas for road construction or otherbuilding purposes is quite complicated as different segmentsof the area were mined at different times, using differentmining methods. The difficulty of determining land stabilityis connected with various parameters of multiple miningmethods (e.g. thickness of the seam, type of support etc.)applied in the area.The problem of land stability has been studied at varioussites. The studies are important because a large part of Ida-Viru county is undermined, and developers need theinformation about the sites and conditions of construction.The main questions of the studies are: How much does theearth sink in the mined areas? How much space remains in oilshale seams? How can describe the undermined landstability?II.
There exists a number of methods for undermined landevaluation. The first condition for choosing an evaluationmethod is the information about time, location and method of