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The Molar Volume of a Gas

The Molar Volume of a Gas

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Published by: Henrique Junior on Feb 12, 2013
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 Molar Volume – Background 
B-1
The Molar Volume of a Gas – Background
The ideal gas law, PV = nRT, gives an accurate description of the behavior of real gasesat low pressures and relatively high temperatures. The ideal gas law is based on the assumptionthat the gas molecules experience no intermolecular forces and that the molecules occupy novolume. These assumptions are valid at low pressure and high temperature since under theseconditions the molecular density is low. The molecules are too far apart to "feel" attractiveforces exerted by other molecules. Furthermore, since the molecules are far apart, the volumeoccupied by the molecules is negligible compared to the total volume occupied by the gas. Inreality, intermolecular forces do exist and molecules do occupy space. The extent to which thesefactors cause a gas to deviate from the ideal gas law at a particular temperature and pressure willdepend on its molecular structure.The volume occupied by one mole of a gas is its molar volume, V
molar 
. This volume can be calculated by solving the ideal gas law for volume and plugging in 1 mole for the amount of gas atoms or molecules, and STP ("standard temperature and pressure" of 273.15 K and 1 atm).
L41.22 atm1K)(273.15moleatmL0.08206mole)(1 PnRT V
molar 
=
!"#$%&
==
(1)
Part 1.
 Determination of the Molar Volume of Hydrogen Gas
 
The hydrogen gas produced in the reaction between solid magnesium and hydrochloricacid displaces water from the 1 L Erlenmeyer flask into the graduated cylinder (Figure 1).
Figure 1.
The apparatus for this experiment.
Once the pressure inside the siphon apparatus has equilibrated with the atmospheric pressure, thetotal pressure inside the flask is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of hydrogen gas andwater vapor, according to Dalton's Law of partial pressures,P
lab
= P
H2
+ P
H2O
(2)where P
lab
is the atmospheric pressure in the laboratory obtained from a barometer, P
H2
is the partial pressure of hydrogen and P
H2O
is the vapor pressure of water at the laboratory
 
 Molar Volume – Background 
B-2temperature. The value of this vapor pressure can be obtained from the
 Handbook of Chemistryand Physics
, (published by the Chemical Rubber Co). Equation 2 can be easily rearranged tosolve for the partial pressure of hydrogen gas:P
H2
= P
lab
– P
H2O
(3)
 
The volume of the water displaced from the 1 L Erlenmeyer flask into the graduatedcylinder is equal to the volume of hydrogen produced. Assuming that Boyle's and Charles' lawsapply, the volume of hydrogen at STP is calculated using equation 4,
!!"#$$%&!!"#$$%&
=
atm1PT273.15VV
22
HlabHSTP
(4)where V
H2
is the measured volume of hydrogen gas produced and T
lab
is the lab temperature inkelvin.Assuming magnesium is the limiting reagent, the moles of H
2
(g) produced can becalculated from the mass of magnesium weighed.
!!"#$$%&!!"#$$%&×
=
Mgmole1Hmole1g24.305Mgmole1MggramsHmoles
22
(5)The molar volume at STP can then be calculated by equation 6.
2STPmolar 
HmolesV V
=
(6)From your data for each of the two trials, calculate the molar volume of hydrogen at STP. Showall calculations and, as always, pay special attention to the significant figures which result fromyour measurements. Calculate the average molar volume of hydrogen at STP and the percenterror in your average.
Part 2.
 Determination of Na
2
CO
3
Mass Percent in an Unknown Mixture
 The mass percent of Na
2
CO
3
in the unknown can be calculated from the moles of carbondioxide produced and the stoichiometry of the reaction below. Na
2
CO
3
(aq) + 2HCl(aq)
2NaCl(aq) + H
2
O(l) + CO
2
(g) (7)The carbon dioxide gas produced in the reaction displaces water from the 1 L Erlenmeyer flask into the graduated cylinder. Once the pressure inside the siphon apparatus has equilibrated withthe atmospheric pressure, the total pressure inside the flask is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of carbon dioxide gas and water vapor, according to Dalton's Law of partial pressures.P
lab
= P
CO2
+ P
H2O
(8)Equation 8 can be easily rearranged to solve for P
CO2
:P
CO2
= P
lab
– P
H2O
(9)and notice that P
CO2
= P
H2
from equation 3.
 
 Molar Volume – Background 
B-3Once the partial pressure of CO
2
is known, it can be related to the moles of CO
2
(g) produced via the ideal gas law.
labCOCOCO
TVPn
222
××
=
(10)The moles of CO
2
produced can then be converted to the grams of sodium carbonate in theunknown.
!!"#$$%&!!"#$$%&×
=
32232CO32
CO Namole1 g105.97COmole1CO Namole1 nCO Namass
2
(11)The mass percent of Na
2
CO
3
in your unknown can then be calculated with equation 12.
100massunknowntotalCO NamassCO Na%mass
3232
×"#$%&'
=
(12)From your data for each of the two trials performed, calculate the mass percent of Na
2
CO
3
inyour unknown. Show all calculations and, as always, pay special attention to the significantfigures which result from your measurements. Calculate the average mass percent of Na
2
CO
3
inyour unknown.Pre-Lab Homework 1.
 
Read Chapter 9 and define the following terms:a.
 
Ideal gas b.
 
Charle’s Lawc.
 
Boyle’s Lawd.
 
STPe.
 
Ideal gas Law2.
 
A 14.7 L cylinder contains 46.7 g O
2
at 35
o
C. What is the pressure of this gas, in atm?3.
 
In the following reaction 81.2 mL of O
2
(g) is collected over water at 23
o
C and barometric pression 751 mmHg. What must have been the mass of Ag
2
O (s)decomposed? (Vapor pressure of water at 23
o
C= 21.1 mmHg).

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