The auteur theory:
Developed by French film theorists as "politique des auteurs."Among these theorists, several were particularly interested inHitchcock: Francois Truffaut, Claude Chabrol, Eric Rohmer.1. Despite the collaborative nature of movies, a film has an"author," who is the director.2. As an artist, a director can work within conventional forms andgenres and still impose a distinctive "vision" on the films."Auteur" critics downplay historical or infrastructural elements toemphasize the "vision" or unified sensibility that structured thefilm. These critics prefer to examine a director's full body of work,looking for recurring themes, symbols, and motifs that define theauteur's vision. Auteur criticism also tends to prefer directors whoworked in conventional genres (suspense, westerns, etc.), becausethey provide the best opportunities to see how a distinctivesensibility can manifest itself even with cliched material.
Structuralism looks at a film or any other "text" as a
, a set of patterns or relationships. The meaning of a work (or a body of work) comes not so much from inherent meanings of itsindividual elements, as from how they interrelate within a "
."In Hitchcock studies, structural analysis has emphasized
s. Various critics havesuggested various key patterns: doubling, pursuit and flight, activityand passivity, voyeurism and 'the gaze,' and so on.
, considered as a set of conventional patterns within a basicformula, is one interest in structural criticism.
(such asthe falsely-accused man) are recurring structural elements related togenre. Film techniques such as subjective (point-of-view) shootingcan also be analyzed as structural elements.
, a form of structuralism, uses the concept of
todiscuss conventional ways that things are done in texts. Codes arecultural phenomena because they are learned. Nevertheless, throughfamiliarity codes come to seem natural rather than cultural: this process is called "
."There are various categories of codes, including