2 Column Operations
In this module, you will simulate an Ethanol Plant. You will get morepractice with the Column unit operation of HYSYS by:
•modeling columns with side draws•adding a column with real trays.
Typically an ethanol fermentation process produces mainly ethanolplus several by-products in small quantities: methanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-pentanol, acetic acid, andCO
produced in the fermentation vessel carries some ethanol.This CO
stream is washed with water in a vessel (
) to recoverthe ethanol, which is recycled to the fermenter.The ethanol rich product stream from the fermenter is sent to aconcentration (
) tower. An absorber with a side vapour draw canbe used to represent this tower. This vapour draw is taken from Stage 2so as to have an azeotropic ethanol product with less methanolcontamination. The top vapour is fed to a light purification tower(
) where most of the remaining CO
and some methanol isvented.The feed to the Rectifier (
) is the bottoms product of the Lightspurification tower and the vapour draw from the concentration tower.The Rectifier is operated as a conventional distillation tower.Methanol concentrates towards the top stages, so a small distillatedraw is provided at the condenser. Also, a small vent for CO
is providedat the condenser. Another interesting point is the concentration of heavy alcohols in theinterior of the Rectifier. These alcohols are normally referred to as Fusel
oils. Fusel oils are a mixture of propanols, butanols and pentanols, witha potential value superior to that of ethanol. Accumulation of fusel oilsin the Rectification Tower can cause the formation of a second liquidphase and subsequent deterioration of performance for these trays, sosmall side liquid draws of fusel oils are installed on the rectifier to avoidthis problem.