The bird conservation initiatives - waterbirds, waterfowl, shorebirds and landbirds - arecooperating to design a comprehensive “integrated bird monitoring” (IBM) program for Canadaand the United States. The conceptual framework for IBM (Fig. 1) includes strong emphasis ondetecting species at risk and helping to protect them. These broad goals are achieved byestimating population trends and defining requirements for viable populations. These objectivesin turn are accomplished by population modeling based on population levels, demographic ratesand habitat information. Population trends are estimated by surveying breeding populationswhenever possible, and by surveying the species for which this is not feasible at other times of year. Surveys of all species are made throughout the year to help identify and monitor use of suitable habitat.
Conceptual framework for integrated bird monitoring.3