Mapping Risk and Vulnerability in S ˜ ao PauloMetropolitan Region
Andrea Ferraz Young and Carlos Afonso NobreAbstract
Current climate change projections indicate that heavy rainfall is anincreasing problem in many areas around the world, including the S˜ao PauloMetropolitan Region, Brazil. This will result in severe ﬂooding and landslidesin the upcoming years. Therefore, the geography of climate change vulnerabilityis vital to adaptation planning. Using Geographic Information System (GIS) andmapping tools such as digital elevation models (DEM), this chapter identiﬁes themain areas affected by ﬂoods and landslides. We characterize such areas by theirbiophysical dimensions and socio-economic status. In turn, we not only focus onthe physicalenvironmentbut examinethe geographyof socio-politicaldeterminantsof vulnerability. Overall, this chapter will highlight which areas are vulnerable toclimate change and what we can expect in 2030.
Climate change • Urbanization • Megacities • Risk assessment• Vulnerability • Disasters
Projections indicate that if the S˜ao Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR) continuesto expand at its current rate, there will be an approximate increase of 38% of theurban area by 2030. Effects of this include increased ﬂooding and landslide risks,affecting a larger proportion of the population and in particular the poorest.
A.F. Young (
)CEPAGRI, State University of Campinas, Saulo de Carvalho Luz, 111 apto 84B,13033-195 Campinas, Brazile-mail:email@example.com;firstname.lastname@example.org
C.A. NobreCCST – Center for Earth System Science, INPE (National Institute for Space Research),Avenida dos Astronautas, 1758, 12227-010 S˜ao Jos´e dos Campos, Brazile-mail:email@example.comK. Otto-Zimmermann (ed.),
Resilient Cities 2
, Local Sustainability 2,DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-4223-9 6,© Springer Science
Business Media B.V. 201253