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MB0050 Research Methodologies 2013 Assignment.docx

MB0050 Research Methodologies 2013 Assignment.docx

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Published by DDhan

MB0050 Research Methodologies 2013 Assignment.docx

MB0050 Research Methodologies 2013 Assignment.docx

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 1
MB0050 - Research Methodology
Question 1- (a)
Explain the types of Research.
(b)
What is the significance of Research in social and business science?
Answer:(a) Types of Research:
 Although any typology of research is inevitably arbitrary, Research may be classified crudelyaccording to its major intent or the methods. According to the
intent 
, research may beclassified as:
1) Pure Research:
It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice,
e.g., Einstein’s theory of relativity, Newton’s contributions, Galileo’s contribution, etc.
It is also known as basic or fundamental research. It lays foundation for appliedresearch. It offers solutions to many practical problems.
2) Applied Research:
It is carried on to find solution to a real-life problem requiring an action or policydecision. It is thus problem-oriented and action-directed. It seeks an immediate andpractical result, e.g., marketing research carried on for developing a new market
3) Exploratory Research:
It is also known as formulative research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. It is ill-structured andmuch less focused on pre-determined objectives.
4) Descriptive Research:
It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It is the simplest type of research. It is more specific than an exploratory research. It aims at identifying thevarious characteristics of a community or institution or problem under study.
 5) Diagnostic Research:
It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. It is directed towardsdiscovering what is happening, why it is happening and what can be done about. Itaims at identifying the causes of a problem and the possible solutions for it.
6) Evaluation Research:
It is a type of applied research. It is made for assessing the effectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for assessing the impact of developmentalprojects on the development of the project area.
7) Action Research:
It is a type of evaluation study. It is a concurrent evaluation study of an actionprogramme launched for solving a problem for improving an existing situation.
 
 
 2
(b) Significance of Research in Social and Business Sciences:
 According to a famous Hudson Maxim, “All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence, for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention”. Research
encourages scientific and inductive thinking, besides promoting the development of logicalhabits of thinking and organizing.
The role of research in applied economics in the context of an economy or businessis greatly increasing in modern times.
The increasingly complex nature of government and business has raised the use of research in solving operational problems.
Research assumes significant role in formulation of economic policy, for both thegovernment and business.
Research helps to formulate alternative policies, in addition to examining theconsequences of these alternatives.
Research is also necessary for collecting information on the social and economicstructure of an economy to understand the process of change occurring in thecountry.Therefore, large staff of research technicians or experts is engaged by the governmentthese days to undertake this work.Research also assumes a significant role in solving various operational and planningproblems associated with business and industry.
Operational research
relates to the application of logical, mathematical, and analyticaltechniques to find solution to business problems such as cost minimization or profitmaximization, or the optimization problems.
Motivational research
helps to determine why people behave in the manner they do withrespect to market characteristics. More specifically, it is concerned with the analyzing themotivations underlying consumer behaviour. All these researches are very useful for business and industry, which are responsible for business decision making.Research is equally important to social scientist for analyzing social relationships andseeking explanations to various social problems. It gives intellectual satisfaction of knowingthings for the sake of knowledge.
Question 2
 –
 
What is meant by Validity? How does it differ from reliability and what areits types?
 Answer:Validity
means that a measurement scale should measure what it is supposed to bemeasured. A measurement scale may be considered to be valid if it effectively measures aspecific property or characteristic that it intends to measure. The question of validity does notarise in the case of measurement of physical characteristics such as length, weight andheight. This is because the measurement is direct and can be done through standardmeasuring devices. On the other hand, the measurement of abstract characteristics such asmotivation and attitudes is more indirect and therefore poses the problem of validity.
 
 3
Validity may be classified into different types, as described below. The degree of validity of each type is determined by applying logic, statistical procedures or both.
1. Content validity:
This type of validity may be of two types
 –
 a) Face validity andb) Sampling validity.
Face validity
is determined through a subjective evaluation of a measuring scale.For example, a researcher may develop a scale to measure consumer attitudestowards a brand and pre-test the scale among a few experts. However, the limitationof this type of validity is that it is determined by opinions, rather than through astatistical method.
Sampling validity
refers to how representative the content of the measuringinstrument is. In other words, the measur 
ing instrument’s content must be
representative of the content universe of the characteristic being measured.
2. Predictive validity:
This type of validity refers to the extent to which one behavior can bepredicted based on another, based on the association between the results yielded by themeasuring instrument and the eventual outcome.
3. Construct validity:
 A construct is a conceptual equation that is developed by theresearcher based on theoretical reasoning. Various kinds of relationships may be perceivedby the researcher between a variable under study and other variables. The instrument maybe considered to have construct validity only if the expected relationships are found to betrue.When determining the validity of a particular measurement instrument, all the three types of validity discussed above should be determined.
Reliability
relates to consistency, the measurement scale should give consistent results.This refers to the ability of a measuring scale to provide consistent and accurate results
.
Togive a simple example, a weighing machine may be said to be reliable if the same reading isgiven every time the same object is weighed.Reliability and validity are closely interlinked. A measuring instrument that is valid is alwaysreliable, but the reverse is not true. That is, an instrument that is reliable is not always valid.However, an instrument that is not valid may or may not be reliable and an instrument that isnot reliable is never valid.
 
Question 3
 –
(a) Why Literature survey is important in research?(b) What are the criteria of good research problem?
 
Answer:Literature Survey:
Exploratory studies is concerned with an area of subject matter for with explicit hypothesishave not been formulated. The work of a researcher is to study about that field, search for possibilities of innovation and then derive hypothesis.

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