Validity may be classified into different types, as described below. The degree of validity of each type is determined by applying logic, statistical procedures or both.
1. Content validity:
This type of validity may be of two types
a) Face validity andb) Sampling validity.
is determined through a subjective evaluation of a measuring scale.For example, a researcher may develop a scale to measure consumer attitudestowards a brand and pre-test the scale among a few experts. However, the limitationof this type of validity is that it is determined by opinions, rather than through astatistical method.
refers to how representative the content of the measuringinstrument is. In other words, the measur
ing instrument’s content must be
representative of the content universe of the characteristic being measured.
2. Predictive validity:
This type of validity refers to the extent to which one behavior can bepredicted based on another, based on the association between the results yielded by themeasuring instrument and the eventual outcome.
3. Construct validity:
A construct is a conceptual equation that is developed by theresearcher based on theoretical reasoning. Various kinds of relationships may be perceivedby the researcher between a variable under study and other variables. The instrument maybe considered to have construct validity only if the expected relationships are found to betrue.When determining the validity of a particular measurement instrument, all the three types of validity discussed above should be determined.
relates to consistency, the measurement scale should give consistent results.This refers to the ability of a measuring scale to provide consistent and accurate results
Togive a simple example, a weighing machine may be said to be reliable if the same reading isgiven every time the same object is weighed.Reliability and validity are closely interlinked. A measuring instrument that is valid is alwaysreliable, but the reverse is not true. That is, an instrument that is reliable is not always valid.However, an instrument that is not valid may or may not be reliable and an instrument that isnot reliable is never valid.
(a) Why Literature survey is important in research?(b) What are the criteria of good research problem?
Exploratory studies is concerned with an area of subject matter for with explicit hypothesishave not been formulated. The work of a researcher is to study about that field, search for possibilities of innovation and then derive hypothesis.