Rivers’ developing archaeological activities, and it is not impossible that he undertook surface-collection himself.
20.2.2 Northeastern United States
130 archaeological objects from the USA in the PRM founding collection,
77 arefrom the Northeast. Most of these (
40 artefacts) are from the State of Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvanian objects include
12 objects from West Chester, Chester County: 6stone axes and adzes (1884.126.104, 1884.126.115–116, 1884.126.171, 1884.126.198,1884.126.202), 2 bannerstones (1884.126.155–156), 2 stone pounders (1884.128.3),and 3 stone arrow-heads (1884.135.298, 1884.135.301, 1884.135.315). Also fromPennsylvania are 6 objects recorded as from the Delaware Water Gap, Monroe County:4 stone sinkers (1884.129.41–42, 1884.130.9–10), a stone pounder (1884.128.58), anda whetstone (1884.129.23). These were possibly from the collection of Pensylvanianantiquarian Benjamin Franklin Peale, from whom John Evans acquired objects fromthis site (see 20.3.2 below; cf. Evans 1897a: 247).
The Pennsylvanian collections in the PRM founding collection also include a stonearrow-head from Darby, Delaware County (1884.135.195), a stone axe from Lancaster(1884.126.202), and 2 stone sinkers from Susquehanna (1884.130.11–12). Some 18further objects are recorded as simply from ‘Pennsylvania’, with no further geographicaldetail: 8 stone axes and adzes (1884.56.20, 1884.126.117–120, 1884.126.168–169,1884.126.181), 5 stone sinkers (1884.130.14, 1884.130.16–19), 4 stone arrow-heads (1884.135.189, 1884.135.229, 1884.135.263, 1884.135.299), and a stone chisel(1884.127.83). One of these stone axes (1884.56.20) appears to be the object describedby Henry Balfour in his 1929 paper ‘On Thunderbolts (continued)’, where he describes(with an illustration)‘a ground stone celt of hard, slatey stone, with blunted cutting-edge and withdecorative notching along the top. Pennsylvania, USA. Pitt-Rivers Collection. Thesmall hole for suspension has evidently been drilled with a stone borer, and suggeststhat similar ideas as to the nature of such celts became prevalent in N America, andthat the celts were preserved as amulets, though possibly by European settlers ratherthan by natives’ (Balfour 1929: 169).Beyond Pennsylvania, the remaining Northeastern artefacts in the PRM founding collection are from the States of New York, Massachusetts, New Jersey and Maine. There are
22 objects from the State of New York, most of which comprises acollection of
19 stone arrow-heads from Utica, Oneida County, purchased fromthe dealer Bryce McMurdo Wright (1884.135.190–194, 1884.135.199, 1884.135.209,1884.135.212, 1884.135.261, 1884.136.269–270, 1884.136.272, 1884.136.291–292,1884.136.305, 1884.136.321–322). Also purchased from Wright is a stone axe recordedas from Bedford, Orange County (1884.126.322). A further stone axe (1884.126.197) isrecorded as from ‘New York Prov.’, and another stone axe is simply recorded as from‘New York’ (1884.126.218). There are 6 objects from the State of Massachusetts: a stonearrow-head collected from Gill, Franklin County by geologist Edward Hitchcock (1793– 1864) (1884.135.238); a stone axe from New Bedford, Bristol County (1884.126.203);
In 1879, a paper in
reported on excavations of ‘Indian graves’ by members of thePhilosophical Society of West Chester in November 1878, and drew comparison with other graves ‘openednear Delaware Water Gap a few years ago’ (Barber 1879: 297; cf. Barber 1877: 199). It is possible that someof the artefacts from the PRM founding collection from these two sites relate to these excavations – althoughthe collection of banner-stones and stone drill-points by members of the Westchester County HistoricalSociety was also reported by Charles Rau – with whom John Evans appears to have been in contact (see20.3.2
below) – in 1881 (Rau 1881: 539–40).
Cite this paper as: Dan Hicks and Michael Petraglia 2013. North America.In Dan Hicks and Alice Stevenson (eds) World Archaeology at the Pitt Rivers Museum: a characterization. Oxford: Archaeopress, pp. 409-454.For further details on the book, and to order a copy, see http://www.prm.ox.ac.uk/world.htmlCopyright © Pitt Rivers Museum, Archaeopress, editors and individual authors 2013.The Pitt Rivers Museum’s database can be accessed through the museum’s website at http://www.prm.ox.ac.uk.Research enquiries about the collections should be addressed to:Head of Collections, Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org