Te Commonwealth Institute/
African-Americans have lower ratesof having photo IDs, while married women have lower rates of having their current legal name on their photoID). While SB1256 does not disqualify aperson from voting who has a non-matching address, it would disqualify persons with non-matching names. Assuming half of the 10 percentof adult citizens without both thecurrent address and current namehave a non-matching name, a totalof 16 percent of adult U.S. citizenseither lack a government-issued photoidentication or have one with anon-matching name. With 5,435,644registered voters in Virginia as of December 2012, 869,703 currently registered Virginia voters would beforced to obtain a proper photoidentication in order to vote. According to the Virginia DMV,processing a driver’s license renewalat a customer service center costs$22.40
. Although not identical to theprocess for applying for a non-driverphoto identication card, we wouldexpect the costs for drivers’ licenserenewal processing to be less thanor, at most, equal to the costs forproducing a voter identication card with a photograph and signature. Therefore, if we assume an in-personidentication transaction cost of $22.40 per person and approximately 869,000 registered Virginia voters without proper photo identication,then providing free IDs to those Virginians without a proper photoidentication document would cost Virginia about $19,465,600. This $19 million potential cost isbefore considering the costs to Virginia of paying for potential voters to obtain copies of theunderlying documents necessary toprove identity and obtain the photoID, assuming doing so would berequired to obtain the new photo id voter registration cards. Nationally,about 7 percent of U.S. citizensdo not have ready access to a U.S.passport, naturalization papers, orbirth certicates, with low-incomeindividuals less likely to have accessto one of the documents. Applying those rates to the estimated 869,703registered Virginians without properphoto identication, approximately 60,879 registered Virginia voters would be entitled to free copies of thedocuments necessary to prove theiridentity for voting. Obtaining a copy of a Virginia birth certicate costs$12. Assuming all of the voters wereborn in Virginia, providing one formof vital record per affected individual without proper underlying proof of identity would cost Virginia a further$730,551. Furthermore, 34 percent of voting-age women in the United States who have some form of underlying documentation of citizenship do nothave ready access to a document withtheir current legal name. If these women need to be provided with acopy of their marriage certicate inorder to clear whatever hurdle Virginiaerects for obtaining a photo voterregistration card, that cost must also beborne by the state.Based on these assumptions, the costof providing free photo identicationsand free access to copies of theunderlying documents would be about$20.2 million. Even if we assume thatthe rate of Virginia voters withoutproper identication is a third of theseestimates (a Minnesota match of voterregistration and motor vehicle recordsfound seven percent of registered voters in Minnesota did not have a valid identication and a Missourianalysis found six percent of registered voters had no photo identication onle with the state), the cost to Virginiaof making photo identicationavailable to voters would still be $6.7million.
The other major costs Virginia wouldface related to SB1256 include publiceducation/outreach, training for localelection ofcials, and the processing of additional provisional ballots.Using Virginia’s 2012 experience, where the governor and General Assembly made signicant changes to voter ID requirements in the state, as well as scal impact statements fromneighboring states on this issue, andthe actual costs from states that haveimplemented photo identicationrequirements, it is possible to estimatethe costs Virginia could face.
Based on Virginia’s experience withthe 2012 voter ID changes, theDepartment of Planning and Budgethas estimated that SB719—a moreminor change to Virginia’s voteridentication requirements than isproposed in SB1256—would requirethe state to spend between $250,000and $500,000 on voter education andoutreach.In Maryland
and North Carolina
,the scal impact statements forproposed photo identication rulesestimated education/outreach costs of $500,000 and $600,000, respectively. Adjusted for the relative size of thestates’ populations, the proportionatecosts in Virginia would be $698,275and $501,030, respectively. With Virginia, like Maryland, having asignicant share of its population inthe expensive Washington, DC mediamarket, it is likely that Virginia’s costs would be at the higher end of theseranges.