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Dr Fares ElKhayat - Avian Biology

Dr Fares ElKhayat - Avian Biology

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Published by fareselkhayat
ملف عن بيولوجية الطيور وعلاقة هذه الخصائص البيولوجية ببعض الأمور الأكلينيكية
ملف عن بيولوجية الطيور وعلاقة هذه الخصائص البيولوجية ببعض الأمور الأكلينيكية

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Published by: fareselkhayat on Feb 14, 2013
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Revision of Poultry BiologyBirds & PoultryPoultryBirds
Domesticated birds including chickens, turkeys,ducks, geese, quail, pigeon & ostrich.Both domesticated & undomesticated species of classAves. About 10000 avian species in 27 orders.
Some author classifies RABBITS with poultry although they are mammals.
Aims of poultry production:1-Meat production
→ commercial broilers" Hubbard, Ross, Coob, Avian 48 and Arboplus" & cross-bred broilers "Saso breed". In addition Turkeys, ducks, ostriches and quails are reared for meat production.48 .
2-Table egg production
→ commercial layers as Hi Lyne, Hisex, Bovans and Lohmann..
3-Fertile egg production
→ Breeders "Breeder of Hubbard, Ross, Coob 500 & 700, Avian 48 andArboplus" & Saso breed"
.4-Feather production
→ ostrich.
→ Pheasants, Sparrows, Parrot and pigeon.
The differences between commercial layers & breeders.BreedersCommercial layersCriteria
Fertile eggTable egg
Essentials Not present
Deep litter onlyDeep litter or cages
System of housing
 Not less than 3 kg Not more than 2 kg
Weight of hen
 Not less than 80
gm Not more than 60 gm
Weight of egg
 Not less than 150 gm Not more than 120 gm
Amount of feed/hen/day
Lower Higher 
Feed intensity
 Not more than 180 egg Not less than 300 egg
Egg productivity/year
About 70 weeks.About 60 weeks.
Life Span
Classic with IBD, Reo, CIA.Classic without IBD, Reo, CIA.
Vaccination scheduleMention the poultry terms:Broilers
: reared till 6-7 wk old either six (2 kg), Tender andeasy to cook, 800 million in Egypt.
Older & slightly larger than a broiler.
: Castrated
chicken at 5-7 month old weighs about4 kgs.
Young chickens.
young turkeys.
: semi-mature chickens.
: young ducks.
: Young geese.
: Young pigeon.
(Gobbler): matures ♂ turkey.
: mature ♀ chicken, turkey, duck & geese.
: mature male duck.
: adult male goose.
: group of geese.
Avian unique CharacteristicsI-Anatomical characteristics:
1-Feathers + no sweat glands + sparse distribution of sebaceous glands + uropygial or preen or oil bag or gland that is well developed in aquatic birds, in addition to the scales onto legs and feets.2-Modified forelimbs into wings for flying in most birds and modified hind limbs for walking, swimmingor perching.3-Birds have no teeth and the lips are replaced by horny beaks of different shapes according to species. Itis modified for prehension of feeds.4-Presence of fused skeleton in certain area of vertebral column e.g. synsacrum "fusion of the 14
vertebrae of the caudal region of the vertebral column".5-The presence of air sacs which will be discussed later. They have very important functions in avianrespiration.6-Avian species have no diaphragm and the thoracic, abdominal & pelvic cavities are fused in onecelomic cavity. The fusion of body cavities in birds facilitates the transmission of infections in-betweenthe visceral organs.7-Avian species have no urinary bladder and urethra and the two ureters originate from the two kidneysand open directly in the cloaca.8-Avian species are characterized by the presence of the cloaca "universal sac having 4 openings; thecoprodium (opening of intestine), the urodium (opening of ureters), the proctodeum (opening of vasdeference in male and the left oviduct in female) and the opening of bursa of Fabricius.9-Avian females have 2 ovaries & 2 oviducts but the right ones are atrophied and un-functional while theleft ones are the only active ovary and oviduct.10-Avian species have no lymph nodes except for ducks and geese in which there are two primitivelymph nodes, each of which is located along the side of the femur.
II-Physiological characteristics:
1-Avian digestive system is of low physical limitation, so, the avian feeds should be nutritionallyconcentrated, having all nutrients and easily digested and absorbed.2-The activity, number of heart beats, respiratory rhythm, metabolic and growth rates of avian species arehigher than those of the mammals, so the nutritive requirements of the former are higher than in the latter.3-Avian R.B.Cs are nucleated, avian neutrophilis are modified to hetrophils and avian blood platelets aretrue cells "thrombocytes". Avian antibodies are only three types "IgG, IgM and IgA". Avian R.B.Cs Thrombocytes  MHC-I.4-The avian species are warm-blooded animals i.e. constant body temperature is whatever the ambienttemperature.
5-The avian species are oviparous i.e. reproduction via internal fertilization and external brooding of eggs.6-Avian species are uricotelic i.e. their end product of protein metabolism is uric acid. N.B. Animal species are classified according to their end product of protein metabolism into: Ureatelic"all mammals except for ruminant and Dalmatian dog"; Allantolotelic "ruminant and Dalmatian dog";Amoniatelic "Fish" and Uricotelic "Poultry“. Avian species are uricotelic i.e. their end product of proteinmetabolism is uric acid.
External Avian AnatomySkin
: it is thinner and more delicate than that of mammals. The color of the skin varies according tospecies, breed, age and diet.
cover almost the entire surface of bird. Grow from
feather follicles
, which are organized intofeather tracts.
Feather tracts
are named according to the structure they are associated with e.g. thefemoral feather tract is on the thigh, which contains the femur. It insulates and protects skin from gettingwet or injured. It also helps birds to fly or glide. Newly hatched chicks have down . Feathers begingrowing in a few days and are grown by 4-6 weeks. Second feather growth at 2-3 months. Final feather growth occurs at sexual maturity. Feather patterns and colors vary with breeds and varieties. Malefeathers have pointed tips; female feathers have rounded ends.Molting: Hens molt (lose feathers) once a year when they stop laying eggs. Most birds molt and replacetheir feathers by growing new ones.
are external structures on the head of birds and are largely ornamental . The sizeand color of them are correlated with the gonad development and secretion of the sex hormones. The redcolor of the comb and wattles is attributed to the high vascularity of the dermis covering them. They havedifferent characteristic features in male vs. female birds, and among different poultry species.
) are the external structures in turkeys' equivalent to the comb and wattles.
oil gland
oil bag:
is the only significant gland of the skin that is located dorsallynear the tip of tail. It is present in all birds but well-developed in water fowls. In the chicken, two lobesdrain through a median nipple-like papilla. Its function is somewhat uncertain but preening birds take oilfrom it and apply it to their feathers. It also has a function in vitamin D and calcium metabolism.

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