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lMIT6 003S10 Lec13 Handout

lMIT6 003S10 Lec13 Handout

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Published by: inalcanzable20004289 on Feb 14, 2013
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02/14/2013

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6.003:
 
Signals
 
and
 
Systems
Lecture
 
13
 
March
 
18,
 
2010
6.003:
 
Signals
 
and
 
Systems
 
CT
 
Feedback
 
and
 
Control
 
March
 
18,
 
2010 
 
Feedback
 
and
 
Control
 
Feedback:
 
simple,
 
elegant,
 
and
 
robust
 
framework
 
for
 
control.
 
+
 
 
 
Y  
 
 
 
 
controller
 
plant
 
sensor
 
We
 
started
 
with
 
robotic
 
driving.
 
d
i
 
=
 
desiredFront
 
d
o
 
=
 
distanceFront
 
Feedback
 
and
 
Control
 
Using
 
feedback
 
to
 
enhance
 
performance.
 
Examples:
 
improve
 
performance
 
of 
 
an
 
op
 
amp
 
circuit.
 
control
 
position
 
of 
 
a
 
motor.
 
reduce
 
sensitivity
 
to
 
unwanted
 
parameter
 
variation.
 
reduce
 
distortions.
 
stabilize
 
unstable
 
systems
 
 
magnetic
 
levitation
 
 
inverted
 
pendulum
 
Feedback
 
and
 
Control
 
Reducing
 
sensitivity
 
to
 
unwanted
 
parameter
 
variation.
 
Example:
 
power
 
amplifier
 
0
MP3
 
player
 
power
 
amplifier
 
8
 
< F 
0
 
<
12
 
speaker
 
Changes
 
in
 
0
 
(due
 
to
 
changes
 
in
 
temperature,
 
for
 
example)
 
lead
 
to
 
undesired
 
changes
 
in
 
sound
 
level.
 
Feedback
 
and
 
Control
 
Feedback
 
can
 
be
 
used
 
to
 
compensate
 
for
 
parameter
 
variation.
 
0
MP3
 
player
 
 
β 
 
+
 
power
 
amplifier
 
8
 
<
0
 
<
12
 
speaker
 
 
Y  
 
 
(
s
) =
 
KF 
0
 
1 +
 
βKF 
0
 
If 
 
 
is
 
made
 
large,
 
so
 
that
 
βKF 
0
 
 
1
,
 
then
 
(
s
)
 
 
1
 
β 
 
independent
 
of 
 
 
or
 
0
!
 
Feedback
 
and
 
Control
 
Feedback
 
reduces
 
the
 
change
 
in
 
gain
 
due
 
to
 
change
 
in
 
0
.
 
0
MP3
 
player
 
100
 
1
 
10
 
+
 
8
 
< F 
0
 
<
12
 
 
Y  
 
 
0
 
10
 
20
 
0
 
10
 
20
 
8
 
< F 
0
 
<
12
 
0
 
     G    a     i    n     t    o     S    p    e    a     k    e    r
0
 
(no
 
feedback)
 
100
0
 
1 +
 
100
0
10
 
(feedback)
 
1
 
6.003:
 
Signals
 
and
 
Systems
 
Lecture
 
13
 
March
 
18,
 
2010
Check
 
Yourself 
 
0
MP3
 
player
 
 
β 
 
+
 
power
 
amplifier
 
8
 
<
0
 
<
 
12
 
speaker
 
 
Y  
 
 
Feedback
 
greatly
 
reduces
 
sensitivity
 
to
 
variations
 
in
 
 
or
 
0
.
 
lim
 
→∞
 
(
s
) =
 
KF 
0
 
1 +
 
βKF 
0
 
 
1
 
β 
 
What
 
about
 
variations
 
in
 
β 
?
 
Aren’t
 
those
 
important?
 
Crossover
 
Distortion
 
Feedback
 
can
 
compensate
 
for
 
parameter
 
variation
 
even
 
when
 
the
 
variation
 
occurs
 
rapidly.
 
Example:
 
using
 
transistors
 
to
 
amplify
 
power.
 
MP3
 
player
 
speaker
 
+50
V  
 
50
V  
 
Crossover
 
Distortion
 
Crossover
 
Distortion
 
This
 
circuit
 
introduces
 
“crossover
 
distortion.”
 
Crossover
 
distortion
 
can
 
have
 
dramatic
 
effects.
 
For
 
the
 
upper
 
transistor
 
to
 
conduct,
 
V  
i
 
 
V  
o
 
> V  
 
.
 
For
 
the
 
lower
 
transistor
 
to
 
conduct,
 
V  
i
 
 
V  
o
 
<
 
V  
 
.
 
Example:
 
crossover
 
distortion
 
when
 
the
 
input
 
is
 
V  
i
(
t
) =
 
B
 
sin(
ω
0
t
)
.
 
+50
V  
 
V  
o
(
t
)
 
+50
V  V  
o
 
V  
i
 
V  
o
 
t
 
V  
i
 
V  
o
 
V  
 
V  
i
 
V  
 
50
V  
 
50
V  
 
Crossover
 
Distortion
 
Feedback
 
can
 
reduce
 
the
 
effects
 
of 
 
crossover
 
distortion.
 
MP3
 
player
 
+
 
speaker
 
+50
V  
 
50
V  
 
 
Crossover
 
Distortion
 
As
 
 
increases,
 
feedback
 
reduces
 
crossover
 
distortion.
 
+50
V  V  
o
(
t
)
 
 
= 4
 
V  
i
 
+
 
V  
o
 
 
t
 
50
V  
 
2
 
6.003:
 
Signals
 
and
 
Systems
 
Lecture
 
13
 
March
 
18,
 
2010
 
Crossover
 
Distortion
 
Feedback
 
and
 
Control
 
+50
V  
 
Using
 
feedback
 
to
 
enhance
 
performance.
 
Demo
 
 
original
 
Examples:
 
 
no
 
feedback
 
V  
i
 
+
 
V  
o
 
 
improve
 
performance
 
of 
 
an
 
op
 
amp
 
circuit.
 
 
 
= 2
 
 
 
control
 
position
 
of 
 
a
 
motor.
 
 
 
= 4
 
 
reduce
 
sensitivity
 
to
 
unwanted
 
parameter
 
variation.
 
 
 
= 8
 
50
V  
 
 
reduce
 
distortions.
 
 
 
= 16
 
 
original
 
 
stabilize
 
unstable
 
systems
 
V  
o
(
t
)
 
 
magnetic
 
levitation
 
 
inverted
 
pendulum
 
t
 
J.S.
 
Bach,
 
Sonata
 
No.
 
1
 
in
 
G
 
minor
 
Mvmt.
 
IV.
 
Presto
 
Nathan
 
Milstein,
 
violin
 
Control
 
of 
 
Unstable
 
Systems
 
Feedback
 
is
 
useful
 
for
 
controlling
 
unstable
 
systems.
 
Example:
 
Magnetic
 
levitation.
 
i
(
t
) =
i
o
 
y
(
t
)
 
Control
 
of 
 
Unstable
 
Systems
 
Magnetic
 
levitation
 
is
 
unstable.
 
i
(
t
) =
i
o
 
y
(
t
)
 
m
(
t
)
 
Mg
 
Equilibrium
 
(
y
 
= 0
):
 
magnetic
 
force
 
m
(
t
)
 
is
 
equal
 
to
 
the
 
weight
 
Mg
.
 
Increase
 
y
 
 
increased
 
force
 
 
further
 
increases
 
y
.
 
Decrease
 
y
 
 
decreased
 
force
 
 
further
 
decreases
 
y
.
 
Positive
 
feedback!
 
Modeling
 
Magnetic
 
Levitation
 
The
 
magnet
 
generates
 
a
 
force
 
that
 
depends
 
on
 
the
 
distance
 
y
(
t
)
.
 
i
(
t
) =
i
o
 
y
(
t
)
 
m
(
t
)
 
Mg
 
m
(
t
)
 
y
(
t
)
 
Mg
 
i
(
t
) =
i
0
 
Modeling
 
Magnetic
 
Levitation
 
The
 
net
 
force
 
accelerates
 
the
 
mass.
 
i
(
t
) =
i
o
 
y
(
t
)
 
m
(
t
)
 
Mg
 
m
(
t
)
 
Mg
 
=
(
t
) =
Ma
 
=
¨
y
(
t
)
 
magnet
 
1
 
 
A
 
A
 
y
(
t
)
y
(
t
)
 
(
t
)
 
3

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