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Nikola Tesla - From Colorado Springs to Long Island (Commentary by Aleksandar Marinčić)

Nikola Tesla - From Colorado Springs to Long Island (Commentary by Aleksandar Marinčić)

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This is a typescript of the handwritten lab notes produced by Tesla in Colorado Springs between June 1, 1899 and Jan. 7, 1900, and on Long Island between June 2, 1900 and September 18, 1901. The book starts out by giving reader a day by day account of the nine months in Colorado that followed Tesla's decade-long investigations in New York City into the fundamental principals of wireless transmission. The account picks up again about five months after Tesla's return to New York at a time when work on the Wardenclyffe Plant had just begun. The notes provided here drop off in the middle of 1901, a point in time when the Tesla Tower had not yet been completed and preliminary testing had not yet begun.

...the opposite pole when receiving station is supposed to be located over an area covered by half of the wave. An example will aid in giving an illustration of what can be reasonably expected in applying the principles for the above purpose. Suppose the capacity C = 10,000 cm. This can be obtained by a roof on insulated supports. If the roof be say in the shape of a sphere (this will serve in the present example) it would have to have a radius of 100 meters. But since as demonstrated in many tests the capacity of these insulated terminals increases with elevation about 1/2 % per foot, by elevating sphere 400 feet only 33 meters radius will be all that is needed.

Assume now that 100 000 per second to be adopted as frequency and that we expend on the generator 100 H.P. How much under best conditions can we expect to get at receiving station? 100 H.P. roughly = 75 000 Watts. This enables us to get pressure to which the insulated sphere or capacity C can be charged by this amount of energy.

Let the pressure be p then we have: 1/2 p2 10000/9x1011 . 200000 = 75000 and p2 = 67500000 = 6750 x 104.

From this p = 100 6750 = 8200 Volts roughly. This means to say that we could charge the terminal periodically (200000 times per second) up to a pressure of 8200 Volts.

Evidently with such small pressure the effect at distance would be qualitatively very small but we can, without using more power increase the pressure many times by resonating action.

For the moment will be useful to consider what might be done by working with the above pressure of 8200 Volts only. According to law of density referred to before the charge distributes itself over the surface of Earth as illustrated and the density of each zone is inversely as the surface of the zone.

If we use 100 000 vibrations per second the wave length will be about 1.86 miles. Hence 1/2 wave 0.93 miles. Taking for simplicity density uniformly distributed over the area or zone we may estimate it to be 2/3 of the maximal.

Let a = area of sphere or terminal of transmitter,

A = area of zone - the last on opposite pole where density greater.

As above assumed the radius r of sphere may be 33 meters or about 100 feet. The radius of polar cap = 0.93 miles 4900 feet approx.

a/A = 4r2/R2 = 4(r/R)2 = 4(100/4900)2 = 4492 = 1/600 about.

Under the conditions and with reference to above law, since the quantity of electricity on polar cap is exactly equal to the quantity on sphere C the density of charge on the polar cap will be 1/600 that on sphere. From what has been said above, however only 2/3 of this value or 1/900 can be taken. If Q the quantity of electricity both on sphere and polar cap, D density on sphere, d density on cap we have: D = Q/a d = Q/A D/d - A/a. On the other hand Q = CP = 10000/9 x 1011 . 8200 = 8/105 . Hence D = 8/105a . Here a should be taken in cm square. Now a = 4pi x 33002 = 140 x 106 cm sq. approx.

Therefore D = 8/105 x 140 x 106 = 8/144 x 1012 = 4/7 x 1012 and d = 4/63 x 1014 as absolute values of D and d respectively.

From the law of density and obvious considerations it follows that the e.m.f. impressed at polar cap will be in the same ratio smaller as the density is smaller or it will be 8200/9= 8 Volts [i.e. 9.1 Volts -
This is a typescript of the handwritten lab notes produced by Tesla in Colorado Springs between June 1, 1899 and Jan. 7, 1900, and on Long Island between June 2, 1900 and September 18, 1901. The book starts out by giving reader a day by day account of the nine months in Colorado that followed Tesla's decade-long investigations in New York City into the fundamental principals of wireless transmission. The account picks up again about five months after Tesla's return to New York at a time when work on the Wardenclyffe Plant had just begun. The notes provided here drop off in the middle of 1901, a point in time when the Tesla Tower had not yet been completed and preliminary testing had not yet begun.

...the opposite pole when receiving station is supposed to be located over an area covered by half of the wave. An example will aid in giving an illustration of what can be reasonably expected in applying the principles for the above purpose. Suppose the capacity C = 10,000 cm. This can be obtained by a roof on insulated supports. If the roof be say in the shape of a sphere (this will serve in the present example) it would have to have a radius of 100 meters. But since as demonstrated in many tests the capacity of these insulated terminals increases with elevation about 1/2 % per foot, by elevating sphere 400 feet only 33 meters radius will be all that is needed.

Assume now that 100 000 per second to be adopted as frequency and that we expend on the generator 100 H.P. How much under best conditions can we expect to get at receiving station? 100 H.P. roughly = 75 000 Watts. This enables us to get pressure to which the insulated sphere or capacity C can be charged by this amount of energy.

Let the pressure be p then we have: 1/2 p2 10000/9x1011 . 200000 = 75000 and p2 = 67500000 = 6750 x 104.

From this p = 100 6750 = 8200 Volts roughly. This means to say that we could charge the terminal periodically (200000 times per second) up to a pressure of 8200 Volts.

Evidently with such small pressure the effect at distance would be qualitatively very small but we can, without using more power increase the pressure many times by resonating action.

For the moment will be useful to consider what might be done by working with the above pressure of 8200 Volts only. According to law of density referred to before the charge distributes itself over the surface of Earth as illustrated and the density of each zone is inversely as the surface of the zone.

If we use 100 000 vibrations per second the wave length will be about 1.86 miles. Hence 1/2 wave 0.93 miles. Taking for simplicity density uniformly distributed over the area or zone we may estimate it to be 2/3 of the maximal.

Let a = area of sphere or terminal of transmitter,

A = area of zone - the last on opposite pole where density greater.

As above assumed the radius r of sphere may be 33 meters or about 100 feet. The radius of polar cap = 0.93 miles 4900 feet approx.

a/A = 4r2/R2 = 4(r/R)2 = 4(100/4900)2 = 4492 = 1/600 about.

Under the conditions and with reference to above law, since the quantity of electricity on polar cap is exactly equal to the quantity on sphere C the density of charge on the polar cap will be 1/600 that on sphere. From what has been said above, however only 2/3 of this value or 1/900 can be taken. If Q the quantity of electricity both on sphere and polar cap, D density on sphere, d density on cap we have: D = Q/a d = Q/A D/d - A/a. On the other hand Q = CP = 10000/9 x 1011 . 8200 = 8/105 . Hence D = 8/105a . Here a should be taken in cm square. Now a = 4pi x 33002 = 140 x 106 cm sq. approx.

Therefore D = 8/105 x 140 x 106 = 8/144 x 1012 = 4/7 x 1012 and d = 4/63 x 1014 as absolute values of D and d respectively.

From the law of density and obvious considerations it follows that the e.m.f. impressed at polar cap will be in the same ratio smaller as the density is smaller or it will be 8200/9= 8 Volts [i.e. 9.1 Volts -

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Published by: THE NIKOLA TESLA INSTITUTE on Feb 14, 2013
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Nikola Tesla — From Colorado Springs to Long Island,Research Notes: Colorado Springs 1899-1900, New York 1900-1901
(hardcover)Nikola Tesla; Commentary by Aleksandar Marinčić595 pages, 44 photos, many line drawings.ISBN-13: 978-86-81243-44-2
DESCRIPTION
:This is a typescript of the handwritten lab notes produced by Teslain Colorado Springs between June 1, 1899 and Jan. 7, 1900, andon Long Island between June 2, 1900 and September 18, 1901.The book starts out by giving reader a day by day account of thenine months in Colorado that followed Tesla's decade-longinvestigations in New York City into the fundamental principals of wireless transmission. The account picks up again about fivemonths after Tesla's return to New York at a time when work on theWardenclyffe Plant had just begun. The notes provided here dropoff in the middle of 1901, a point in time when the Tesla Tower hadnot yet been completed and preliminary testing had not yet begun.
See
,Aleksandar Marinčić, 1986 for a summary Tesla'sLong Island Notes for the entire period June 2, 1900 to January 29,1906.
 
EXCERPTS
:
. . .
investigation outside and such use. The synchronized coil was wound in one instancearound a drum 10" in diam. and about 4 feet high from the ground and carrying on top a boardfor placing the box with the instruments and supporting a light rod for air or capacity wire. Inanother form of apparatus the synchronized coil was wound on drum of 2 foot diam. and 18"high, which was supported on a tripod of photographic outfit. These two connections illustratedin Diagrams 1. and 2. were found best suitable. The small condenser around secondary scomprised only a few sheets of mica and tinfoil sufficient to let the currents of a frequency of 50,000 per sec. pass through easily.
Colorado Springs
Sept. 18, 1899Experiments were resumed with all transformers in place, high speed break and connection inmultiple arc of West. Transformer. The object was to further test the intensity of the vibrations
 
produced particularly without spark. The connection was as in diagram. It was though that inthis arrangement, which was dwelt upon before, the disturbances were produced moreeconomically than when using a spark discharge. The experiments fully confirm this. In thetests the capacity of the two balls of 18" diam. did not very materially derange the adjustmentand period of the circuit. This is to be expected; as for the secondary the capacity was far toosmaIl and on the other hand the independent vibration of the extra coil could not be materiallyinterfered with since the condenser formed by the two balls and zinc plate allowed free passageof currents to earth. Now the important thing was to decide whether it is better to make length of extra coil one half or one quarter of wave as before. This to be thoroughly investigated. Theworking was excellent with 1/4 wave length. 
 
Long Island
the opposite pole when receiving station is supposed to be located over an area covered by half of the wave. An example will aid in giving an illustration of what can be reasonably expected in

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