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Published by djezill_arum
Academic work about film
Academic work about film

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: djezill_arum on Feb 18, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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A16 mmspring-woundBolexH16 Reflex camera, a popular introductory camera in film schools
encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as anartform, and themotion  picture industry. Films are produced by recordingimages from the world withcameras, or by creating images usinganimationtechniques or special effects. Films arecultural artifactscreated by specificcultures,which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. Film is considered to be an important artform, a source of popular entertainment and a powerful method for educating— or indoctrinating— citizens. The visual elements of  cinema gives motion pictures a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by usingdubbingor subtitlesthat translatethe dialogue. Traditional films are made up of a series of individual images called frames. When these imagesare shown rapidly in succession, a viewer has the illusion that motion is occurring. The viewer cannot see the flickering betweenframes due to an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has beenremoved. Viewers perceive motion due to a psychological effect called beta movement.The origin of the name "film" comes from the fact that  photographic film(also calledfilm stock ) had historically been the primarymediumfor recording and displaying motion pictures. Manyother terms exist for an individual motion picture, including
 picture show
, and most commonly,
. Additional terms for the field in general include
the big screen
the silver screen
the cinema
, and
the movies
Main article: History of film
Preceding film by thousands of years, playsanddanceshad elements common to film,scripts, sets,costumes, production,direction, actors,audiences, storyboards,andscores. Much terminology later used in film theory and criticism applied, such as mise en scene (roughly, the entire visual picture at any one time). Moving visual and aural images were not recorded for replaying as in film. Near the year 1600, the camera obscura was perfected by della Porta.Light is inverted through a small hole or lensfrom outside, and projected onto a surface or screen, creating a moving image, but it is not preserved in a recording.In the 1860s, mechanisms for producing artificially created, two-dimensional images in motionwere demonstrated with devices such as thezoetrope, mutoscope and  praxinoscope. These
machines were outgrowths of simple optical devices (such asmagic lanterns) and would displaysequences of still pictures at sufficient speed for the images on the pictures to appear to bemoving, a phenomenon called persistence of vision.Naturally the images needed to be carefully designed to achieve the desired effect, and the underlying principle became the basis for thedevelopment of filmanimation.A frame from 
,the world's earliest film, by Louis Le Prince, 1888 With the development of celluloid film for still photography, it became possible to directly capture objects in motion in real time. Early versions of the technology sometimes required a person to look into a viewing machine to see the pictures which were separate paper printsattached to a drum turned by a handcrank. The pictures were shown at a variable speed of about5 to 10 pictures per second, depending on how rapidly the crank was turned. Some of thesemachines were coin operated. By the 1880s the development of themotion picture cameraallowed the individual component images to be captured and stored on a singlereel,and led quickly to the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and  printed film and magnify these "moving picture shows" onto a screen for an entire audience.These reels, so exhibited, came to be known as "motion pictures". Early motion pictures werestatic shotsthat showed an event or action with no editingor other cinematic techniques. Ignoring Dickson's early sound experiments (1894), commercial motion pictures were purelyvisual artthrough the late 19th century, but these innovativesilent filmshad gained a hold on the  public imagination. Around the turn of the twentieth century, films began developing a narrativestructure by stringingscenestogether to tellnarratives.The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots of varying sizes and angles. Other techniques such as camera movement wererealized as effective ways to portray a story on film. Rather than leave the audience in silence,theater owners would hire a  pianistor organistor a fullorchestrato play music fitting the mood of the film at any given moment. By the early 1920s, most films came with a prepared list of sheet music for this purpose, with completefilm scoresbeing composed for major productions.A shot from Georges Méliès 
 Le Voyage dans la Lune(A Trip to the Moon)
(1902), an earlynarrative film.
The rise of European cinema was interrupted by the breakout of  World War Iwhile the film industry in United States flourished with the rise of Hollywood. However in the 1920s, Europeanfilmmakers such asSergei Eisenstein, F. W. Murnau,and Fritz Lang, along with American innovator D. W. Griffith and the contributions of  Charles Chaplin,Buster Keatonand others, continued to advance the medium. In the 1920s, new technology allowed filmmakers to attach toeach film a soundtrack of speech, music andsound effectssynchronized with the action on the screen. Thesesound filmswere initially distinguished by calling them "talking pictures", or 
.The next major step in the development of cinema was the introduction of so-called "natural"color . While the addition of soundquickly eclipsed silent film and theater musicians, color was adopted more gradually as methods evolved making it more practical and cost effective to produce "natural color" films. The public was relatively indifferent to color photography asopposed to black-and-white,
but as color processes improved and became as affordableas black-and-whitefilm, more and more movies were filmed in color after the end of World War  II, as the industry in America came to view color as essential to attracting audiences in itscompetition with television, which remained a black-and-white medium until the mid-1960s. Bythe end of the 1960s, color had become the norm for film makers.Since the decline of thestudio system in the 1960s, the succeeding decades saw changes in the  production and style of film. New Hollywood,French New Waveand the rise of film school educated independent filmmakers were all part of the changes the medium experienced in thelatter half of the 20th century. Digital technology has been the driving force in changethroughout the 1990s and into the 21st century.
Main article: Film theory
Film theory seeks to develop concise and systematic concepts that apply to the study of film asart. It was started byRicciotto Canudo's
The Birth of the Sixth Art 
. Formalist film theory, led byRudolf Arnheim, Béla Balázs, andSiegfried Kracauer , emphasized how film differed from reality, and thus could be considered a valid fine art.André Bazinreacted against this theory byarguing that film's artistic essence lay in its ability to mechanically reproduce reality not in itsdifferences from reality, and this gave rise to realist theory. More recent analysis spurred byLacan's psychoanalysis andFerdinand de Saussure'ssemioticsamong other things has given rise to  psychoanalytical film theory,structuralist film theory,feminist film theoryand others.
Film is considered to have its ownlanguage.James Monacowrote a classic text on film theory titled "
 How to
a Film
". Director  Ingmar Bergmanfamously said, "
[Andrei]Tarkovskyfor me is the greatest [director], the one who invented a
new language
 , true to the nature of film, asit captures life as a reflection, life as a dream
." Examples of the language are a sequence of back and forth images of one actor's left profile speaking, followed by another actor’s right profilespeaking, then a repetition of this, which is a language understood by the audience to indicate aconversation. Another example is zooming in on the forehead of an actor with an expression of silent reflection, then changing to a scene of a younger actor who vaguely resembles the firstactor, indicating the first actor is having a memory of their own past.

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