but as color processes improved and became as affordableas black-and-whitefilm, more and more movies were filmed in color after the end of World War
II, as the industry in America came to view color as essential to attracting audiences in itscompetition with television, which remained a black-and-white medium until the mid-1960s. Bythe end of the 1960s, color had become the norm for film makers.Since the decline of thestudio system in the 1960s, the succeeding decades saw changes in the
production and style of film. New Hollywood,French New Waveand the rise of film school
educated independent filmmakers were all part of the changes the medium experienced in thelatter half of the 20th century. Digital technology has been the driving force in changethroughout the 1990s and into the 21st century.
Film theory seeks to develop concise and systematic concepts that apply to the study of film asart. It was started byRicciotto Canudo's
The Birth of the Sixth Art
[Andrei]Tarkovskyfor me is the greatest [director], the one who invented a
, true to the nature of film, asit captures life as a reflection, life as a dream
." Examples of the language are a sequence of back and forth images of one actor's left profile speaking, followed by another actor’s right profilespeaking, then a repetition of this, which is a language understood by the audience to indicate aconversation. Another example is zooming in on the forehead of an actor with an expression of silent reflection, then changing to a scene of a younger actor who vaguely resembles the firstactor, indicating the first actor is having a memory of their own past.