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Chemistry Chapter Outline 9-21

Chemistry Chapter Outline 9-21

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Published by: Edward Egan on Feb 18, 2009
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05/10/2014

 
Chapter OutlineChapter 1: Matter and Measurement1.1Elements and Atoms
Elements – composed of only one type of atom
113 elements known, ~90 found in nature
Many elements have names and symbols with Latin or Greek elements
Periodic Table- includes the symbol and other information about the elements
Atom- smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristic of thatelement.(A)Na – Sodium, Cl – Chlorine, Cr – Chromium (B)Zinc – Zn, Nickel – Ni, Potassium-K 1.2Compounds and Molecules
Chemical Compound- A pure substance with is composed of two or moredifferent elements
~20 million compounds now known
When elements become part of a compound, their original properties (Ex.Color, hardness, melting point) are replaced by the characteristic properties of the compound.
Compounds have distinctly different characteristics from their parent elementsand have a definite percentage composition (by mass) of their combiningelement.
Ions- electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms
Molecules- Smallest, discrete units that retain the composition and chemicalcharacteristics of the compound.
Chemical Formula- Any compound can be represented by it. (ex. H
2
0)(a) Iron – solid, cube, gray; (b) Water- liquid, colorless; (c) table salt- colored, white,solid, (d) colorless, odorless, gaseous1.3Physical Properties- can be observed and measured without changing the compositionof a substance (ex. Color, state of matter, melting point, boiling point, density,solubility, electric conductivity, malleability, ductility, viscosity)
Density- the ration of the mass of an object to its volume, is a physical propertyuseful for identifying substances. Density =
Mass
/
Volume
o
The density of a substance relates the mass and volume of a substance. If any two of three quantities – mass, volume, and density – are known for asample of matter, the third can be calculated.
o
Mass (g) = volume x density = volume (cm
3
) x Mass (g) / Volume (cm
3
)
Temperature- the property of matter that determines whether heat energy can betransferred from one body to another and the direction of that transfer 
o
Three temperature measurement scales are commonly used: Fahrenheit,Celsius (used for measurements in the laboratory), and Kelvin scales(When calculations incorporate temperature data).
o
Celsius- used in most other countries and in scientific notation-0ºC = freezing point of water, 100ºC = Boiling Point
 
o
Kelvin scale- international standard for science, uses same unit as Celsiusscale but uses lowest possible temp. as its zero, a point called absolutezero. (Freezing point of water- 273.15 K; Boiling Point- 373.15 K)
o
Celsius converted into Kelvins using T(K) = 1 K / 1 ºC(T ºC + 273.15 ºC)
Temperature Dependence of Physical Properties
o
The temp. of a sample matter often affects the numerical values of its properties
o
Because the density of liquids changes with temperature, it is necessary toreport the temperature when you make accurate volume measurements.(Lab glassware specifies the temp. at which they were calibrated)
Extensive and Intensive Properties
o
Extensive properties- depend on the amount of substance present.(Ex. mass and volume)
o
Intensive Propereties- Do not depend on the amount of substance(ex. Ice will melt at 0º C whether an ice cube or iceberg)1.4Physical and Chemical Change
Physical change- changes in physical properties- identity of substance is preserved
Chemical change/reaction- one of more substances (reactants) has beentransformed into one or more different substances (products)
Chemical Property- involves a change in the identity of a substance
A chemical change produces a new arrangement of atoms without a gain or loss in the number of atoms of each kind
The particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) present after the reaction, however,are different from those present before the reaction.
Chemical Equation- the representation of the change with chemical formulas.
A physical change does not result in a new chemical substance.
The substances (atoms, molecules, or ions) present before and after the changeare the same, but their arrangement relative to one another is different.
Physical and Chemical changes are often accompanied by a transfer of energy.Water to Steam – Liquid to gas (physical change) Wood Burning (chemical change)1.5Classifying Matter 
States of Matter and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory
o
State of Matter- Whether a substance is a solid, liquid, or gas.
Solid- Rigid shape, fixed volume that changes little as temp and pressure change.
Liquids- fixed volume, but takes shape of its container and has nodefinite shape.
Gases- volume of gas is volume of container, volume of a givenamount of gas varies with temperature and pressure.
o
Kinetic-Molecular Theory- help us interpret the properties of solids,liquids, and gases.
States all matter consists of extremely tiny particles(atoms,molecules, or ions) which are all in constant motion
 
In solids these particles are packed closely together usually in aregular array.
The particles vibrate back and fourth and seldom squeeze past itsneighbors.
In liquids or gases atoms or molecules are arranged randomly.
Are fluid because the particles are not confined to specificlocations and can move past one another.
Gas particles are far apart and move extremely rapidly andrandomly, allowing them to fill their containers.
The higher the temp. the faster the particles move.
The particles energy of motion (kinetic energy) acts to overcomethe forces of attraction between the particles.
A solid melts to form a liquid when the temp. of the solid is raisedto the point at which the particles vibrate fast enough and far enough to push one another out of the way and move out of their regularly spaced positions.
As temp increases even more, the particles move even faster untilfinally they can escape and enter the gaseous state.
Matter at the Macroscopic and Particulate Levels
o
Observations and manipulation generally take place in the macroscopicworld of chemistry.
o
Submicroscopic/Particulate- the level of individual particles that make upall of matter.
Pure Substances
o
Every pure substance has two features:
It has a set of unique properties by which it can be recognized
It cannot be separated into two or more different pure substances by and physical technique
Mixtures: Homogeneous and Heterogeneous
o
Heterogeneous mixture- a mixture in which the uneven texture of thematerial can be detected.
o
Homogeneous mixture- completely uniform at the particulate level andconsists of one or more substances in the same phase.
o
Solutions- Composition is the same everywhere in the sample. (ex. Air)
o
Purified- a mixture is separated into its pure components.(repetitionincreases the purity)1.6Units of Measurement
Qualitative observations- Color or appearance of the substances; nomeasurements involved.
Quantitative observations- Involve numerical observations. (time, mass,volume, and distance)
Mass- Kilogram (Kg), Length- meter (m), Time- second (s), Temperature-Kelvin (K), Amount of Substance- mole (mol), Electric Current- Ampere (A)1.7Using Numerical Information

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