Chapter OutlineChapter 1: Matter and Measurement1.1Elements and Atoms
Elements – composed of only one type of atom
113 elements known, ~90 found in nature
Many elements have names and symbols with Latin or Greek elements
Periodic Table- includes the symbol and other information about the elements
Atom- smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristic of thatelement.(A)Na – Sodium, Cl – Chlorine, Cr – Chromium (B)Zinc – Zn, Nickel – Ni, Potassium-K 1.2Compounds and Molecules
Chemical Compound- A pure substance with is composed of two or moredifferent elements
~20 million compounds now known
When elements become part of a compound, their original properties (Ex.Color, hardness, melting point) are replaced by the characteristic properties of the compound.
Compounds have distinctly different characteristics from their parent elementsand have a definite percentage composition (by mass) of their combiningelement.
Ions- electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms
Molecules- Smallest, discrete units that retain the composition and chemicalcharacteristics of the compound.
Chemical Formula- Any compound can be represented by it. (ex. H
0)(a) Iron – solid, cube, gray; (b) Water- liquid, colorless; (c) table salt- colored, white,solid, (d) colorless, odorless, gaseous1.3Physical Properties- can be observed and measured without changing the compositionof a substance (ex. Color, state of matter, melting point, boiling point, density,solubility, electric conductivity, malleability, ductility, viscosity)
Density- the ration of the mass of an object to its volume, is a physical propertyuseful for identifying substances. Density =
The density of a substance relates the mass and volume of a substance. If any two of three quantities – mass, volume, and density – are known for asample of matter, the third can be calculated.
Mass (g) = volume x density = volume (cm
) x Mass (g) / Volume (cm
Temperature- the property of matter that determines whether heat energy can betransferred from one body to another and the direction of that transfer
Three temperature measurement scales are commonly used: Fahrenheit,Celsius (used for measurements in the laboratory), and Kelvin scales(When calculations incorporate temperature data).
Celsius- used in most other countries and in scientific notation-0ºC = freezing point of water, 100ºC = Boiling Point