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To Study the Mathematical Analysis for Human area Networking using Finite Element Method

To Study the Mathematical Analysis for Human area Networking using Finite Element Method

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Human area network(HAN) makes use of human body as a medium for transmission of signal. This is also known as RED TACTON. Because of its unique characters, this technology can be said as a novel and promising technology many applications in the fields such as personal area network (PAN), computer network access, implant biomedical monitoring, human energy transmission, etc. In this paper, work has been carried out for analyzing the electrostatic coupling for the RED TACTON technology by performing computer simulation using the developed finite-element models, in which (1) we have the incidence and reflection of electronic signal in the upper arm model which were analyzed by using the theory of electromagnetic wave, (2) the finite-element models of electrostatic coupling were developed by using the electromagnetic analysis package of ANSYS software, (3) the signal attenuation of electrostatic coupling were simulated under the conditions of different signal frequency, electrodes direction, electrodes size & transmission distance. Finally, important conclusions are deduced on the basis of simulation results.
Human area network(HAN) makes use of human body as a medium for transmission of signal. This is also known as RED TACTON. Because of its unique characters, this technology can be said as a novel and promising technology many applications in the fields such as personal area network (PAN), computer network access, implant biomedical monitoring, human energy transmission, etc. In this paper, work has been carried out for analyzing the electrostatic coupling for the RED TACTON technology by performing computer simulation using the developed finite-element models, in which (1) we have the incidence and reflection of electronic signal in the upper arm model which were analyzed by using the theory of electromagnetic wave, (2) the finite-element models of electrostatic coupling were developed by using the electromagnetic analysis package of ANSYS software, (3) the signal attenuation of electrostatic coupling were simulated under the conditions of different signal frequency, electrodes direction, electrodes size & transmission distance. Finally, important conclusions are deduced on the basis of simulation results.

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07/07/2013

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 International Journal of Advanced Computer Research (ISSN (print): 2249-7277 ISSN (online): 2277-7970)Volume-2 Number-4 Issue-7 December-2012
 
48
To Study the Mathematical Analysis for Human area Networking using FiniteElement Method
Kakade Priyanka
1
, Khobragade S V
2
 
EXTC Dept, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University,Lonere.,Raigad, Maharashtra, IndiaM.Tech student
1
, Professor
2
 kakade.priyanka88@gmail.com
1
,svk2305@gmail.com
2
 
Abstract
 Human area network(HAN) makes use of human body as a medium for transmission of signal. This is also known as RED TACTON. Because of itsunique characters, this technology can be said as a novel and promising technology many applicationsin the fields such as personal area network (PAN), computer network access, implant biomedical  monitoring, human energy transmission, etc. In this paper, work has been carried out for analyzing the electrostatic coupling for the RED TACTON  technology by performing computer simulationusing the developed finite-element models, in which(1) we have the incidence and reflection of electronic signal in the upper arm model whichwere analyzed by using the theory of electromagnetic wave, (2) the finite-element models of electrostatic coupling were developed by using the electromagnetic analysis package of ANSYS software, (3) the signal attenuation of electrostatic coupling were simulated under the conditions of different signal frequency, electrodes direction, electrodes size & transmission distance. Finally, important conclusions are deduced on the basis of simulation results.
Keywords
 Human area network(HAN), electrostatic coupling, finite-element, personal area network
1. Introduction
RED TACTON is a communication technology inwhich human body is used as a signal transmissionmedium. Compared with the current short distancewireless technology, including Bluetooth, Zigbee andso on, it has the characteristics of high transmissionquality, high data rate, high security, easy network access and no communication bandwidth problem,etc. Due to its unique characters, this technology isproposed as a novel and promising technology forpersonal area network (PAN) [1], computer network access [2], implant biomedical monitoring[1,3],human energy transmission [1,3,4], etc.Lot many discussion has been carried out about theinteraction between the electrical signal and humanbody [5], but from research point of view little work has been done to describe the transmissionmechanism of the electrical signal in human body byusing the method of theoretical analysis. In thispaper, the transmission process of electronic signal inthe upper arm of human body is analyzed by usingthe relative theory of electromagnetic wave.Compared with the waveguide type, the electrostaticcoupling type HAN communication [6], which hasthe advantages of low attenuation, easy realizationand low power consumption, is a promising approachfor such data transmission. However, theinvestigation of the simulation primarily focuses onthe type of waveguide required for this type of communication, little investigation has been done inthe computer simulation of the electrostatic couplingRED TACTON communication. As a result, itsrelative problems remain unsolved. In this paper,simulation of electrostatic coupling has been done onthe basis of finite-element models. The finite-elementmodels of upper arm, electrostatic couplingelectrodes, air medium
 
and the ground are developedfirstly by using the electromagnetic analysis packageof ANSYS, then the attenuations were simulatedunder the conditions of different signal frequency,
 
electrodes direction,
 
electrodes size and transmissiondistance by
 
using the
 
developed model.In this paper section 2 discusses the transmissionmechanism of the electromagnetic wave in humanbody, Section 3 gives the signal attenuations underthe conditions of different signal frequency,electrodes direction, & electrodes size. Finally, theconclusions are given in Section 4.
 
 International Journal of Advanced Computer Research (ISSN (print): 2249-7277 ISSN (online): 2277-7970)Volume-2 Number-4 Issue-7 December-2012
 
49
2. Theoretical analysis
The electromagnetic signal, which transmits inhuman body in an IBC system, can be equivalent tothe time harmonic electromagnetic wave. In thispaper, the transmission process of electromagneticsignal in an upper arm is divided into threeprocesses, namely, incidence, reflection andeffluence. Meanwhile, it is assumed that: (1) Boththe transmitter electrode and the receiver electrodeof IBC system are considered as one point. (2) Onlythe first incidence and reflection are considered inevery layer of the arm model. (3) Every tissue layerof arm model has infinite boundary, isotropicrelative permittivity and isotropic conductivity.In this case, it is also assumed that the upper armmodel consists of skin layer, fat layer, muscle layerand bone layer, as shown in Fig. 1. The incidentplane is
 xoz
.
 X 
-axis is parallel to the medium planeand
 z
-axis is vertical to the medium plane. Thestructure of upper arm is considered as
n
layersuniform medium. Meanwhile, let zero sectionrepresents air medium, section
n
represents musclemedium, section
n
+1 represents bone medium,and the position of 
 z
=
 zn
represents the interfacebetween section
n
and section
n
+1.
Figure 1: The structure of upper arm model2.1 Incidence
 
The electrical field of section
n
, which represents themuscle layer of the upper arm model, is analyzedfirstly. Both the incident angle and the reflectionangle in interface z
n
are
 
ɵ
n
 
and the refraction angleis
ɵ
n+1
. In this paper, the direction
 
of the electricalfield intensity in the every layer is divided into twokinds of polarization, one is vertical to the incident
 
plane, and the other is parallel to the incident
 
plane.When E
xoz plane, then,E
i
 
„(n )
+ E
r
‟(n)
= E
t
‟(n+1)
 
(1)H
i
„(n)
 – 
H
r
 
„(n)
-H
„(n+1)
 (2)Similarly, when E // xoz plane, then,H
i
 
(n)
+ H
r
 
(n)
- H
i
 
(n+1)
(3)
 
E
i
 
(n )
+ E
r(n)
= E
t(n+1)
 (4)In Eq. 1-4, subscript i, r and t represent incidence,reflection and transmission respectively. Thesuperscripts represent the number of medium layers.Ei, Er, and Et can be expressed as:E
i
 
(n )
= E
i
 
(n )
exp(-j)
 
(5)
 
E
r
 
(n )
= E
r
 
(n )
exp(-j)
 
(6)E
i
 
(n+1 )
= E
i
 
(n+1 )
exp(-j)
 
(7)Because the human arm is a dissipative medium,there are two kinds of attenuation,
 
which are phaseattenuation and amplitude attenuation, in thetransmission of electromagnetic wave. To describe
this attenuation, a propagation constant of γ is
introduced in this paper. Then, the propagationconstant of electromagnetic wave in the
n
th layercan be expressed as:
n=
β
n
-
 jα
n
i.e=+
 
(8)
 
where α
n
 
is the attenuation constant, β
n
 
is the
 
phase
 
constant, which represents the phase delay of unit
distance. ω
n
,
μ
n
, ε
n
 
and δ
n
 
represent the frequency of electromagnetic, permeability, dielectric constantand conductivity respectively.
According to the relationship of H = ε / μ E , Fig. 1
-4 can be expressed as:E
i
„(n)
+E
r
‟(n)
=E
t
‟(n+1)
 
E
i
„(n)
-E
r
‟(n)
=I
n,n+1
E
t
‟(n+1)
 
(9)In Eq. 9, I
n,n+1
 
can be expressed as I
, whichrepresents E
xoz
 
plane, and I
⎢⎢
, which representsE
⎢⎢
xoz
 
plane.I
 ┴ 
n,n+1
= (10)
 
 International Journal of Advanced Computer Research (ISSN (print): 2249-7277 ISSN (online): 2277-7970)Volume-2 Number-4 Issue-7 December-2012
 
50I
n,n+1
= (11)As a result, the reflection electromagnetic field andthe incidence electromagnetic field of 
 z
=
 z
n
 
can beexpressed as:E
r(n)
= R
(n)
E
i(n)
= (1- I
n,n+1
) E
i(n)
 / 
(1+I
n,n+1
)(12)E
(n+1)
=T
(n)
E
(n)
 (13)In Eq. 12 and Eq. 13,
 R
and
represent thereflection coefficient and transmission coefficientrespectively.On the other hand, the relationship between
 E 
i
 and
 E 
can also be expressed as:E
i(n)
=E
t(n)
exp[-
 jγ
n
(z
n
-z
n-1
)](14
)
According to Eq. 14, the following equations can beobtained.E
i(n-1 )
+ E
R\r(n-1 +Et(n)
(15)
Ф
n
=
n
(z
n
-z
n-1
)(16)The solution of Eq. 15 be expressed as:(17)Then, according to Eq. 12, 13, 14, 17, the electricalfield of interface
 z
n
-1
in the
n
th layer can be obtained.=(18)Where
 E 
i
(1)
represents the electrical field generated
 by the transmitter of the system, ∆
 Z 
P
=Z
P
-Z
P-1
. In thecase of 
n
=1, 2 and 3, the expressions of electricalfield
 E 
 
(2)
 and
 E 
‟(3)
can be expressed as:(19)
2.2 Reflection
At the interface of 
 z
n
, in the case of someelectromagnetic signal transmits into the (
n
+1)thlayer, some electromagneticsignal reflects into the
n
th layer simultaneously. The reflection coefficientof 
 z
n
can be expressed as:(20)Therefore, the reflection electrical field of 
 E 
(
n
-1)
,which is reflected by the interface of 
 z
n
,canbe expressed as:=
(21)
 
2.3 Effluence:
The effluence process of the electromagnetic signalis opposite to the incidence process of it. Theelectromagnetic signal reflected by the interface of z
n
, transmits into the (
n
-1)th layer. Similarly, ittransmits through the other layers of the arm
 
modeland reaches the position of receiver electrode, whichconnects to the skin
 
of the model. Consequently, the
 
electrical effluence field of the
n
th layer can beexpressed as:
 
= (22)According to Eq. 26, the electrical field in skinlayer, fat layer and muscle layer can be expressed asin equation 23.(23)Finally, the electrical field of receiver electrode isthe synthesis of the electrical fields in section 1, 2,and 3. According to Eq. 21-23, the electrical field of receiver electrode, which represents as
 E 
o
,can be
 
expressed as:

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