International Journal of Advanced Computer Research (ISSN (print): 2249-7277 ISSN (online): 2277-7970)Volume-2 Number-4 Issue-7 December-2012
Plasmon Waveguides by Self-assembly:
In this method of constructing plasmon waveguidescan be carried out by using metal nanoparticle arrays.For efficient dipole coupling of plasmons, theinterparticle should be small, e.g. In case of 50 nm-diameter particles an Interparticle distance of 25 nmis preferred . In a self-assembly method, thenanoparticle arrays are fabricated using template-assisted self assembly of colloids which is anintegration of lithography and self- assembly. Wet-chemically synthesized nanoparticles of silica andgold are self assembled into the channels and holes toform arrays composed of 2-15 particles. Using core-shell colloids the interparticle distance in the Auparticle array could be controlled by the thickness of the silica-shell .Plasmon waveguides consisting of metalnanoparticles can be fabricated using severalmethods. A few of the most promising are: (1)electron-beam lithography and lift-off; (2)electron/ion-beam induced deposition (EBID/IBID);(3) colloidal self-assembly. Using the first technique,plasmon waveguides have been successfullyfabricated, and electromagnetic energy transportbelow the diffraction limit has been detected . Thismethod suffers from serious size-limitations,however. For efficient dipole coupling of theplasmons the interparticle distance must be small: incase of 50 nmdiameter particles an interparticledistance of 25 nm is preferred. Such structures arevery difficult to fabricate using conventionalelectron-beam lithography and lift-off techniques. InEBID or IBID, metal nanoparticles are formed byelectron-beam induced decomposition of a metallo-organic gas.
Figure 3. Schematic example of a plasmonwaveguide formed by self-assembly of Au coresilica-shell colloids in electron beam definedtrenches in silica. The inset shows a cross-sectionof two particles in the waveguide 
Using this technique, nanoparticles can be depositedwith lateral sizes of 20-30 nm and an interparticledistance of ~10nm . Drawbacks of this techniqueare the high equipment costs and slow fabrication.Colloidal self-assembly offers some great advantagesover these techniques in terms of particle dimensions,fabrication time and costs, although the process isless controllable. Using this method, plasmonwaveguides are formed by controlled drying of acolloidal dispersion over a electron-beam patternedsubstrate. By coating the metal particles with adielectric material like silica, the Interparticledistance in the particle array can be accurately tunedvia the thickness of the shell .
Dielectric Loaded SPP Waveguides:
This method of constructing plasmon waveguides hasits principal rooted in the dependence of SPPpropagation constant on the dielectric refractiveindex. It basically consists of depositing narrowdielectric ridges on the metal surface. The resultingtechnology is known as Dielectric Loaded SPPWaveguide
s (DLSPPW’s) and provides an alternate
attractive fabrication technology by being compatiblewith different dielectrics and industrial fabrication
method of UV lithography. DLSPPW’s provide
strong mode confinement and relatively lowpropagation loss .In fiber coupled waveguide DLSPPW basedwaveguide structures, intermediate tapered dielectricwaveguides were used to funnel the radiation to andfrom the plasmonic waveguides. The waveguidestructures, consisting of 1-
-thick polymer ridgestapered from 10-
-wide ridges get depositeddirectly on a magnesium fluoride substrate to 1-
-wide ridges placed on a 50-nm-thick and 100-
μmwide gold stripe. These are fabricated by large
-scale UV-lithography.DLSPPWs have been characterized demonstratingthe overall insertion loss below 24 dB, half of whichwas attributed to the DLSPPW loss of propagation
over the 100 μm
-long distance . The advantage of DLSPPWs compared to other SPP waveguide typesis that a dielectric ridge can be easily functionalizedto provide thermo-optical, electro-optical, or all-optical functionalities and can be used for thedevelopment of active plasmonic components.Moreover, DLSPPWs fabrication is compatible withcurrent lithography process used in the fabrication of electronic circuits..