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bamboo filtration

bamboo filtration

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Published by Joe May
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Published by: Joe May on Feb 15, 2013
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43to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide. It is one of the 3 largest bamboo species and one of themost important in the world. Because of its physical/mechanical properties it may used tomanufacture long lived products such ashouses, furniture, handcrafts, agglomerates,veneers, floors, etc. (Londoño 1998a).
Guaduaangustifolia
can increase its height up to 21 cmday- and emerges from the ground witha con-stant diameter up to 22 cm. Culms reach their final height in the first 6 months of growth, andcome to maturity when they are 4
to5 years old.Optimum growth is reached between
500 and1500 m of altitude, with a rainfall of 1200-2500mm per year-, temperatures between18°C and24°C, and 80-90% relative humidity. It adaptswell to extreme rainfall conditions of Colombian tropical rain forests (more than10000 mm per year-) but not under very dryconditions (<800 mm per year) (Londoño1998b). The ideal composition of culms in aguadua plantation has been estimated to be10% new shoots, 30% young culms, 60%mature and over mature culms and no dry ones,with a density between 3000 to 8000 culms per ha. The diameter diminishes as culm densityincreases (Londoño 1998b; CVC 2000).In Colombia,
G. angustifolia
covers anapproximate area of 51500 ha, 46261 ha of which are wild and 5260 ha are cultivated. TheValle del Cauca Department, has the largest
 Bamboo Science and Culture:The Journal of the American Bamboo Society
16(1): 43-51© Copyright 2002 by the American Bamboo Society
Plant growth and biomass distribution on
Guadua angustifolia
Kunth in relation to ageing in the Valle del Cauca – Colombia
 N.M.Riaño
1
, X. Londoño
2
, Y. López
3
and J.H. Gómez
1
1
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones de Café – Cenicafé, Manizales, Caldas, Colombia
2
Sociedad Colombiana del Bambú, P O Box 661, Armenia, Colombia
3
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Palmira, ColombiaSamples from complete
Guadua angustifolia
clumps, with different ages, on the southeasternflank of the Cauca River valley (Colombia) werechosen for this study. Estimates of the accumulated bio-mass (>50 metric tons CO
2
ha
-1
during 6 years) and its redistribution into different organs wereobtained. The aerial portions (culm, branches, foliage leaves, and caulinar leaves) accumulate80.1% of the total biomass and CO
2
fixation, and the rhizome 19.9% of these. Mathematical func-tions that describe its growth as a function of chronological time on number of organs, fresh anddry weight, and leaf area measurements were developed.The atmospheric concentration of carbondioxide has increased during the last fivedecades, mainly as a consequence of thecombustion of fossil organic matter (coal, oil)and non-fossil matter (forests) resulting fromantropogenic activity (IPCC 1996). Accordingto Goodess
et al 
(1992), the CO
2
rate increases1.8 µmol (CO
2
) mol
-1(air)
year-1, equivalent to0.5% year-1. Estimates indicate that in 100years if the increasing rate is maintained,the environmental CO
2
will reach values of 650 -700 µmol (CO
2
) mol
-1(air)
. This couldcause an increase in the average global temper-ature of 1.5 C to 4.5 C (Saralabai
et al 
. 1997;IPCC 1996).Renewable biomass cultivated as a carbonsump can be managed in short rotationshifts, using it for the production of long-termconsumption goods and for construction.Because of its low contents of sulfuric pollutants, plant biomass might be converted into energy,heat and liquid or gas fuels without greathazards to environment (GIECC 2000a).The Clean Development Mechanisms(CDM) is the only instrument that links devel-oped countries to the reduction of emissions,and which could lead those countries to investresources by sowing plantations with high potential to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide.
G. angustifolia
is one of the tropical species
that have been identified as having great potential
 
44
 Bamboo Science and Culture
Vol. 16area of wild guadua plantations (7960 ha),and has contributes the largest reforested areaof this species (1830 ha) (Londoño 1998a;CVC 2000).Biomass contribution of 
G. angustifolia
tothe soil biomass is around 10 tons per ha per year, and dry matter accumulation reaches 76.6tons pe ha including culms, branches, foliageleaves and cauline leaves (De Wilde 1993).Most of the studies on nutrient extraction andcomposition of culms have been focused onrecycling of nutrients and fertilization(Shanmughavel & Francis 1996; 1997; DeWilde 1993). No reports on growth analysis(accumulation and distribution of dry matter)or CO
2
fixation for photosynthetically activearea were found in the literature.The objective of this research is to study basic aspects of the biomass accumulation of 
G. angustifolia
in order to establish the potentialof this species as atmospheric carbon dioxidefixer, following classical growth analysis.MATERIALS AND METHODS
Location and planting year of thesampling sites
Samples were taken from the southeasternflank of the Cauca River valley. The munici- pality, township, sub-basin river, altitude andestablishing year from the 9 reforested sites of 
G. angustifolia
are shown in Table 1. The meas-ure was done during June and August of 2001,corresponding with a dry season in this zone.During the 3 months period of sampling,5 clumps of 
G. angustifolia
in each nine (9)farms, planted during 1995 to 2000 (72 monthsor 2190 days) were harvested.
Sampling and measurement of theresponse variables
In clumps from 6 to 36 months old (1080days) were measured fresh weight, dry weight,leaf area, culm number and height. Rhizomefresh weight was determined using a digital balance (Mettler 16E), material was choppedand dried down to constant weight in a DIES-640 oven with an air recycling system at 80°C.In clumps older than 1080 days only 3 newshoots, 3 young culms and 5 mature culms of each clump with its rhizomes were sampled.Culms were cut in two or three segments of thesame length, depending on total height, and thediameter in the middle of each segment wasmeasured, weighed and a 10 cm long samplefrom the middle was weighed and dried toconstant weight.Fresh weight of branches, cauline leavesand culm leaves were measured using a 200 gsample of both branches and leaves dried toconstant weight. Leaf area was measured witha Delta T- Device. Fresh weight, dry weight andleaf area were measured on three early shoot-ing culms, three young culms and five matureculms. Rhizome dry weight was measured on200 g samples.Data processing was carried out using MSExcel, Sigma Plot 5.0 and SAS.
AltitudePlantingPlotMunicipalityTownshipSub-basin riverm.a.s.lYearSemesteKatanovoEl CerritoSan AntonioNima-Amaime9671995BB. MunicipalPalmiraÁrea UrbanaNima-Amaime11071996ATarjo 2El CerritoSan AntonioNima-Amaime9641997ACanta ClaroPraderaLa BuitreraBolo-Fraile-Desb.11891997BLas VegasPalmiraGuanabanalNima-Amaime-1998BBella VistaEl CerritoEl ParaísoNima-Amaime13891999AEl PalomarPraderaEl RecreoBolo-Fraile-Desb.12321999BLa PlayaFloridaEl TamboralBolo-Fraile-Desb.14152000A NormandíaPalmiraAguaclaraBolo-Fraile-Desb.-2000BTable 1. Location and planting year of the sampling plots.
 
2002Riaño
et al 
:
Guadua angustifolia
45RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONAlthough the correlation coefficient (r) between total fresh weight and the diameter at
1.5 m height (DBH) seems to be high (0.67), only
45% of the whole fresh weight can be explained by the variation of DBH in
G. angustifolia
. Nonetheless, the magnitude of r is statisticallysignificant (p<0.0001). This result seems toindicate a rough tendency to linearity of totalfresh weight as a function of DBH althoughit is not sufficient to estimate accurately total
fresh weight on DBH basis. This can be illustrated 
 because most of the points fall outside of 
Diameter at breast height (mm)50 60 70 80 90 100 110010000200003000040000500006000070000Clump fresh weight (g)0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000050001000015000200002500030000Clump leaf dry weight (g)0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 350001e+52e+53e+54e+55e+56e+57e+58e+5
 Cl   um pf   e  s  w e i   g t   (   g )   Cl   um p d  y w e i   g t   (   g )   Cl   um p t   o t   al  f   e  s  a e  a (   c m )  
Figure 1. Linear relationships between: a. DBH/ clump fresh weight; b. whole plant fresh weight / whole plant dry weight; c. clump leaf dry weight / clump total leaf area. Fitted model (center line) and confidencelimits (0.95).

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