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Preliminary Data in CO2 Secuestration - Riano Et Al

Preliminary Data in CO2 Secuestration - Riano Et Al

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Published by Joe May
bamboo
bamboo

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Published by: Joe May on Feb 15, 2013
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03/20/2014

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Preliminary data on: QUANTIFICATION OF THE CARBON SUMP EFFECT BYGUADUA (
Guadua angustifolia
Kunth)Riaño Néstor
1,*
, Londoño Ximena
2
, Gómez Jorge
1
, López Yamel
3
 
1
 Fisiología Vegetal, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones de Café Cenicafé. ChinchináCaldas – Colombia.
2
Sociedad Colombiana del Bambú P.O. Box 661 ArmeniaColombia.
3
Universidad Nacional de Colombia – Palmira, Colombia. *Author for correspondence.
 
INTRODUCTION
In Colombia
Guadua angustifolia
Kunth (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) covers anapproximate area of 51.521 has, 46.261 are spontaneous and 5,260 are cultivated. Theoptimal growing area is the Andean region where they form plant communities called"guaduales". In the central-western region of the country,
G. angustifolia
has played animportant role in the history, culture and economics. Records of its existence go as far  back as the pre-Columbian times; today its growing area has been reduced to the river and creek basins.
Guadua angustifolia
was used by the settlers of the coffee region to build their towns, and by farmers as a substitute for lumber to build the facilities of their farms and other purposes. With this bamboo, farmers have been able to preserve water sources and have obtained additional income from selling it and savings by reducingconstruction costs.
Guadua angustifolia
is considered to be one of the three largest species of bamboo, andone of the 20
th
worldwide most important because its physical-mechanical properties asmechanical strength of its wood which makes it an ideal construction materialsubstituting the use of another traditional wood source in a large percentage. In addition,it could be industrialized in long life products such as furniture, crafts, agglomerates,laminates, floors, fabrics, etc (Londoño, 1998a).
Guadua angustifolia
is a fast developing monocotyledon that grows up to 11 cm per day.Its optimal growth conditions are locations with an altitude between 500 – 1500 m,rainfall of 1200-2500 mm year 
-1
, temperatures between 18 and 24 °C, relative humidityof 80 – 90 % (Londoño, 1998b).The most outstanding aspects of research indicate that
G. angustifolia
emerges from theground with an established diameter within a range of 6 - 22 cm, and reaches its fullheight in the first six months of growth. It achieves maturity between 4-5 years. Theideal composition of culms (stems) in a “guadual” has been estimated to be 10% newshoots, 30% young culms, 60% mature and over mature culms and 0% dry ones, with a plant density of 3,000 to 8,000 culms per hectare. The culms have an inverse relationship between density and diameter size (Londoño, 1998b; CORPOCALDAS, 199?; CVC,2000). It has been reported that Guadua add 10 tons per ha
-1
year 
-1
of biomass to the soil.
 
Dry matter accumulation was 76.6 tons including culms, branches and leaves when therewas a total of 2,607 culms per hectare (De Wilde, 1993).With an average production of 1,000 culms per hectare per year (Castaño, 1993) the totalamount of 
G.angustifolia
culm production for the four central-western coffee regiondepartments, can be calculate to be 20,3 million of green stocked hollow culms per year,equivalent to 911,745 tonne per year in green condition (45 T-m/ha).
 
We did not find reports in the literature about growth as dry matter accumulation anddistribution, total leaf area, leaf area emission and leaf area duration. In general, we couldnot find any analysis of classical growth that would allow us to carry out mathematicalmodeling. We did not find data on leaf photosynthetic activity or whole plant gasexchange measurements for Guadua.Renewable biomass grown as a carbon sump could be handled in short rotation shifts,using biomass for long life consumption goods production and for construction. Thatwould in turn generate local job sources and income for the poorest sectors of the population in a quick and continuous way. Natural areas of non disturbed forests,generally associated to fragile ecosystems, could also be preserved from deforestation,which would guarantee their existence and to allow preservation of biodiversity in their areas of influence.The main objective of this research is to develop a growth model for photosynthesis and biomass accumulation in the aerial and underground portion of 
Guadua angustifolia
. We present the data collected during the first months of this research for several aspectsrelated with dry matter accumulation, leaf area emission and enzyme activities for Rubisco and PEPC the most important enzymes for carbon assimilation in plants with C
3
 and C
4
metabolism.
METHODS
Location
Field work was carried out outdoors at the central Colombian coffee region (Caldas,Quindío and Risaralda departments), and laboratory research at Centro Nacional deInvestigaciones de Café, CENICAFE (Chinchiná, Colombia). Headquarters.
Plant material and growth conditions:1. New sowing with nursery plantlets
Guadua angustifolia
 plantlets were cultivated under nursery conditions during 3 months.Then, they were transplanted to the field with a distance of 5 m between plants and 5 m between rows, for a total plot area of 5000 m
2
. Three plots were established at BalsoraFarm (La Tebaida - Quindío) (04° 26 N, 75° 50 W, 1150 m of altitude), San Jorge Farm(Pereira - Risaralda) (04° 49 N, 75° 50 W, 1240 m of altitude) and Naranjal CentralResearch Station (Chinchiná – Caldas) (04° 59 N, 75° 39 W, 1400 m of altitude).
 
 Up to date, two destructive random samples have been taken from each plot and thefollowing variables have been recorded: number and length of culms, total foliar areausing a leaf area measurement system (Delta T device). Rhizomes and fine roots werecarefully extracted from the ground and washed with tap water.Fresh tissue was dried (80 °C) up to constant weight. Sample density was determinatefollowing water displacement of both fresh and dry tissue picked from lower, middle andupper culm portion using a calibrated container.With the information collected every 3 months, until 5-year-old, we expect to construct atthe end of the research a growth curve and determine the potential carbon sequestration by guadua from a new plantation following classical growth analysis and mathematicalmodeling.
2. Growth of 
Guadua angustifolia
from new shoots in established guaduacommunities (guaduales).
At two sites: Naranjal and San Jorge we have selected and labeled 100 renewals inestablished guaduales, which have been measured using the following methodology:Each month until six months old, 5 new shoots are selected randomly. At present only 2random samples have been picked for measuring the following variables: Total length,diameter for each section (the culm have been cut in three similar length sections), freshweight, and 10 cm culm subsamples for dry weight determination. Also we havedeterminate culm leaves and rhizome fresh and dry weight.
3. Activities of Ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase – oxygenase (Rubisco) andPhosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) from foliage leaves tissue.
One g of foliage leaves tissue was ground in a chilled mortar with 8 ml of modifiedPalmer (1986) extraction buffer 0.05 M Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 0.35 M sorbitol, 0.005 MEDTA, 0.005 M
β
-mercaptoethanol, and 3 % w/v PVP-40. The macerate was filteredthrough 4 layers of cheesecloth and an aliquot was taken for total chlorophylldetermination (Wintermanns and de Mots 1965). The remaining filtrate was centrifugedin an Eppendorf 541-C microcentrifuge at 4°C and 8000 rpm for 8 min. One ml of supernatant was filtered through a Biorad Econopac 10DG column equilibrated withelution buffer (0.1 M Hepes-KOH, pH 7.5, 0.0005 M EDTA, 0.01 M magnesium acetate,0.005 M DIECA, 5% v/v glycerol, 0.05% Triton X-100, 0.02 M
β
-mercaptoethanol,0.005 M DTT, and 3 % (w/v) PVP-40) (Angelov
et al 
. 1993). The eluate was also usedto determine the total soluble protein concentration (Bradford 1976).
PEPC and Rubisco assays:
PEPC activity was determined in a Perkin-Elmer Lambda3B spectrophotometer with 1 ml of 0.1 M Hepes-KOH, pH 8.0, 0.0005 M EDTA, 0.001M MgCl
2
, 0.001 M DTT, 0.01 M NaHCO
3
, 0.0002 M NADH, and 5 units of pig heartMDH. Fifty µl of the extract were incubated during 10 min at 35°C and the reaction was

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