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Skeletal and Muscular System of Frogs

Skeletal and Muscular System of Frogs

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It features some of the information and descriptions of the skeletal and muscular system of a frog.
It features some of the information and descriptions of the skeletal and muscular system of a frog.

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: SwÏng Talunay Taborda on Feb 16, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Skeletal and muscular systems
thebones of thebullfrog’s hind legswith those of a
.Thecrocodile’s femur,fibula,and tibia arerelatively short andvery robust.Theyare able to supportthe crocodile’sgreat weight whenit is walking.In contrast,thebullfrog’s tibio-fibula and femur are very long,allowing theattached musclesto provide greatthrust when thefrog is leaping.
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A frog’s vertebral column has only onecervical (neck) vertebra and four to eight trunkvertebrae.The trunk vertebrae have peglikeextensions,called zygapophyses,that interlockand brace the vertebral column,allowing onlya small degree of bending from side to side.Thestrong forelimbs and flexible pectoral (shoulder)girdle absorb the impact of landing after a jump.Unlike other amphibians,frogs and toadshave very short or completely missing ribs.However,they do have a breastbone (sternum),to which breathing muscles attach.The forelimb bones of frogs follow the basicplan of a pentadactyl limb,with the humerusas an upper arm bone,and the carpals,metacarpals,and phalanges forming the bonesof the “wrist”and “hand.However,the twolower forearm bones—the radius and ulna— are fused as the radioulna.The fifth digit,the“thumb,is very short.The power for jumping comes from thelever system of muscles and bone that is usedto extend the legs.To anchor the pelvic girdle
he skeleton of a frog is highly modifiedfrom the elongated form of a fish or a newt.In the evolutionary move fromland to water over millions of years,theskeleton of amphibians has become stronger in comparison with those of fish,because air provides much less support for body weightthan does water.The amphibian vertebralcolumn supports the head and viscera (theorgans of the abdominal cavity) and acts as abrace for the appendicular skeleton (the limbsand girdles) that raise the body off the ground.Frogs and toads,in contrast to salamandersand newts,have a skeletal frame and bodyshape adapted for jumping rather than for walking.The body is shorter and morerounded,the tail has been lost,and the limbs— particularly the hind limbs—are long.The legsfold beneath the trunk rather than jutting outof the body at right angles,as in newts,salamanders,and early amphibians.Along withthese differences are corresponding differencesin the shape,size,and number of bones.
American bullfrog
Compared with their fish ancestors, frogs have a relatively strong skeleton. The bones and muscles are made for  jumping, with the legs folded under the body.
maxillaradioulnahumerustibiofibulartarsalsfemurribspelvisdentarycervical vertebraesquamosalpremaxillasternumurostyle
Skeletal and muscular systems
and hind limbs firmly,the lower vertebralcolumn is greatly stiffened.The single sacralvertebra is attached to a highly elongatedpectoral girdle.Behind this,the remainingvertebrae (postsacral vertebrae) are fused into asingle structure,the urostyle.The pelvic girdle,which on each side is made up of three fusedbones—the ilium,ischium,and pubis—absorbsmuch of the impact of landing after a jump.The hind limb bones,like the bones of theforelimbs,follow the basic plan of a pentadactyllimb,but with the fusion of the two lower legbones—the tibia and fibula—to form thetibiofibula.Unlike the forelimb,the hind limbhas retained the full five digits.The skull of anurans (frogs and toads) isbroad and flat,and compared with the skull of a bony fish or a salamander it has fewer bones.The jaws are adapted for grasping rather thanchewing and for the attachment of themuscular,extendable tongue.
The long, shallow leap of this frog is powered by large leg muscles. The forelimbs are used to absorb the impact on landing.
All frogs and toads
have the ability to jump,or at the very least,hop.When they jump,theforelimbs push off first,and straighten against thebody,followed by the powerful thrust of the hindlimbs.This action sends the animal in a shallowarc through the air at a launch angle of about 45degrees.Just before landing,the animal extends itsforelimbs,which flex at the wrist as the animallands “hands”first,with the pectoral (shoulder)girdle absorbing the force of the impact.The hind limbs provide the main force in jumping,and these muscles are particularlypowerful and efficient.A large muscle called thesemimembranosus muscle is connected betweenthe pelvis and a point on the leg just below theknee.When this muscle contracts,it pulls theupper part of the hind limb backward.Themuscle generates power throughout its rangeof contraction,not just at the beginning;thisis unusual for skeletal muscle in vertebrates.
Muscles and leaping frogs
The hind limbs of a frog are well adapted for swimming as well as for jumping. When the frog is swimming, its hind legs force it through the water,with the webbed toes providing forward thrust.
Cell biology and genetics
Cells and their functions
ells in multicellular organisms specialize tobecome different in structure andfunction.For example,animal nerve cells,calledneurons,transmit information gathered from allaround the body and from the outside world tothe brain,and then trigger an appropriateresponse.Specialized neurons receive differentkinds of information from various sense organs:visual information through eyes or light-sensitive cells;sound information through ears;touch information from whiskers or skin;andchemical information such as taste and smell.Chemical receptors are located in the mouthand nose of most vertebrates but may bemounted on antennae or scattered all over thebody surface in other animals.Some animalshave additional senses,for example for detecting vibrations,electrical signals,or magnetism.However,regardless of its source,allsensory information is ultimately processed bysome part of the nervous system,and neuronsare specialized to do the job as quickly andefficiently as possible.
Muscle cells
Differentiation is the process by which cellsbecome specialized.Neurons are just oneexample,and muscle cells are another.Musclecells,or myocytes,make proteins that allow thecells to contract.When muscle cells worktogether,they can generate movement on amuch larger scale—that of the whole muscle or whole animal.Humans and other vertebrateshave three types of muscle cells:skeletal,smooth,and cardiac.Skeletal muscles areattached to the skeleton and move the torsoand limbs.As skeletal muscle cells form,theyalign to create long linear fibers,hence their alternative name:striated (or striped) muscle.Skeletal muscle cells also fuse to create larger 
How cells eat
All cells need to harvest macromolecules
toprovide the building blocks of their own proteins,carbohydrates,fats,and nucleic acids.Cells alsoneed energy to assemble and disassemble thesemolecules.Autotrophs,or “self-feeders,cancreate their own macromolecules from inorganicraw materials,such as carbon dioxide,water,and light energy.Plants and bacteria that usephotosynthesis to construct sugar and other molecules are autotrophs.Animals and fungi areheterotrophs,which obtain macromolecules andenergy by eating or decomposing the tissues or cells of other organisms.All heterotrophs areultimately dependent on autotrophs for food,and the vast majority also depend on oxygen,a byproduct of photosynthesis.
In phagocytosis, large solid particles are enclosed by folds of the plasma membrane. Inpinocytosis, the membrane folds inward, beneaththe molecule, enclosing dissolved material.
thecells of a mammal,such as a
,with those of anonmammalianvertebrate suchas a
.Inmammals the cellsdo not possess anucleus,but inother vertebratesthey do.
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cytoplasmsolidparticledropsof fluidcytoplasmpseudopodiavacuolepinocytic vesicles

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