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European Scientific Journal Vol.8 no.4

European Scientific Journal Vol.8 no.4

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European Scientific Journal Vol.8 no.4
European Scientific Journal Vol.8 no.4

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Published by: Europe Scientific Journal on Feb 16, 2013
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European Scientific JournalFebruaryedition vol. 8,No.4
ISSN: 18577881 (Print)
e-
ISSN 1857-7431
152
DOPING KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE AMONG ELITEATHLETES IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN NIGERIA
 I. O. Akindutire, PhD
(Corresponding Author)Lecturer in the department ofhumankinetics andhealtheducation, Faculty ofeducation,University of Ado-Ekiti,Nigeria
 J. A. Adegboyega,PhD
Lecturer in the department ofhumankinetics andhealtheducation, Faculty oeducation, University of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
 J. A. Olanipekun,PhD
Lecturer in the department ofhumankinetics andhealtheducation, Faculty oeducation, University of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
 
European Scientific JournalFebruaryedition vol. 8,No.4
ISSN: 18577881 (Print)
e-
ISSN 1857-7431
153
Abstract
This study investigated doping knowledge and practice among the elite athletes in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Also, itexamined the extent to which athletes in tertiary institutions have actually used doping substances. A total of 510 athletes(255 males and 255 females) were randomly sampled from tertiary institutions in three states (Ekiti, Ondo and Oyo States).A structured questionnaire designed by the researchers was used to collectrelevant data for the study. The data collectedwere analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square (X
2
) test and Analysis of variance (ANOVA).The results showed that athletes in tertiary institutions were aware of doping substances used in sports. The athletes hadtried doping substances such as methadone, cocaine, phenobarbital, stanozolol, nandrolone decanoate and caffeine. Thestudy revealed that more male than female athletes engaged in doping practices. Also, the type of sports participated bytheathletes influenced their doping habits.It was therefore recommended that the Nigerian Government should intensify its campaign and public enlightenment programmes to educate the athletes and sports handlers on the health consequences of doping toenhance sports performance.Also, the Government should make funds, facilities and personnel available for a forensic laboratory for drug testing.
Keywords:
Doping, elite athletes, doping agents, drug use, drug abuse
Introduction
Throughout history, dating from the period of ancient Greece, sports played importantroles in many societies. However, their importance accelerated rapidly in the last thirtyyears. Nowadays, victory in sports is construed to indicate political superiority. Winningathletes occupy positions of high esteem within their societies and in some countries thefinancial rewards are quite handsome. This hasmade modern day sporting activities becomea big multi-million dollar industry, thereby escalating the price of victory.The rewards for winning are so high nowadays and the penalties for losing are sosevere that sport administrators, coaches trainers and athletes may succumb to the temptationto win at all costs. They may not care about the methods they employ as long asthey win.The salaries of coaches and managers are now high, compared with what they were receivingonly a few years ago. However, there are strings attached, if the team fails to succeed, themanager or coach is unceremoniously sacked. It is not surprising therefore, that athletes goto great lengths in finding ways to enhance their sports performance. Thus, the use of doping by athletes to improve sports performance and achieve superiority over the opponents becomes a worldwide problem.
 
European Scientific JournalFebruaryedition vol. 8,No.4
ISSN: 18577881 (Print)
e-
ISSN 1857-7431
154
Doping is viewed as the practice of administering or the use of substances in any formalien to the body in abnormal method with the exclusive aim of attaining an artificial andunfair increase of performance in competition. The wide spread of doping in sports begin particularly amongst the followers of pop music with a pharmacological revolution which began in the sixties. Surprisingly, athletes have discovered some ingredients in thesechemical agents that could be used to enhance performance beyond anything that theycouldachieve by hard work and rigorous training programmes. These athletes felt that they couldsimply select the most specific drugs to meet their particular needs for improving performances.Consequently, there was a mass production and use of dope substances with adverseeffects for sports performance when the national and international sports became excessivelycompetitive and commercialized,thus, the prevalence of doping in sports was high. Severalefforts had been made to combat doping in athletics as far back as 1963, having caught theathletes in doping ranging from the use of alcohol to anabolic steroids.It is universally known that some top athletes dope themselves to enhance their  performances. For instance, doping was widely spread as asocial problem during the 1984Olympic Games in Los Angeles, the 1988 Seoul Olympic and re-enforced in the 1996 AtlantaOlympic Games. Synthetic Reports revealed that 37 champions from two Federations weretested for doping and 12 (32%) out of the sample taken, tested positive. In 1992, 69 athletestested positive in 56 sports’ Federations. Laure (1999) reported that the global sportingevents witnessed through internet data the seizure of prohibited substances as ergogenic aids,the dismantling of globaldistribution networks as well as tragic fate of some 18 Belgian andDutch cyclist champions who died of erythropoietin (Epo) and anabolic steroids.The widespread use of doping agents has fundamentally distorted the upper limit of human performance. It is possible for the national athletes to compete without chemicalassistance to achieve record-breaking performance in sports requiring strength, power, speedand endurance. Doping in sports represents a major threat to the existence, principles and practice of modern competitive sports (WADA Code, 2005). It is an issue of concern which poses a great threat to the development of sports ideals in the twenty-first century Africa andindeed the world. Athletes who dope create an uneven playing field for theirpeers whocompete free of performanceenhancing compounds or methods. At the same time, thehealth risks inherent in doping are considerable. Doping has so much become a topical issue

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