INDIA, a Union of States, is a Sovereign Socialist Secular DemocraticRepublic with a parliamentary system of government. The Republic isgoverned in terms of the Constitution, which was adopted by ConstituentAssembly on 26 November 1949 and came into force on 26 January 1950.The Constitution which envisages parliamentary form of governmentis federal in structure with unitary features. President of India is constitutionalhead of executive of the Union. Article 74(1) of the Constitution providesthat there shall be a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as headto aid and advise President who shall in exercise of his functions, act inaccordance with such advice. Real executive power thus vests in Councilof Ministers with Prime Minister as head. Council of Ministers is collectivelyresponsible to the House of the People (Lok Sabha). Similarly, in states,Governor is head of executive, but it is the Council of Ministers with Chief Minister as head in whom real executive power vests. Council of Ministersof a state is collectively responsible to Legislative Assembly.The Constitution distributes legislative power between Parliament andstate legislatures and provides for vesting of residual powers in Parliament.Power to amend the Constitution also vests in Parliament. The Constitutionhas provision for independence of judiciary, Comptroller and Auditor-General, Public Service Commissions and Chief Election Commissioner.
THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY
India comprises 25 States and seven Union Territories. The States are:Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana,Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh,Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab,Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.Union Territories are : Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadraand Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Delhi, Lakshadweep and Pondicherry.CITIZENSHIPThe Constitution of India provides for a single and uniform citizenship forthe whole of India. Every person who was at the commencement of theConstitution (26 January 1950) domiciled in the territory of India and: (a)who was born in the territory of India or (b) either of whose parents wasborn in the territory of India or (c) who has been ordinarily resident inthe territory of India for not less than five years immediately preceding suchcommencement, shall be a citizen of India. The Citizenship Act, 1955 provides