STATE OF OHIO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
Earthwork consists of roadway excavations (cuts) androadway embankments (fills) for highways andassociated items of work. Earthwork includes all types of materials excavated and placed in embankment,including soil, granular material, rock, shale, andrandom material. Associated items of work consideredto be in the broad range of earthwork include clearingand grubbing, removal of trees and stumps, scalping,removal of structures and obstructions, channelexcavation, preparation of foundations for embankment,disposal of excavated material, borrow, preparation of subgrade, proof rolling, subbase, and temporary waterpollution, soil erosion and siltation control. If pavementis to remain smooth and stable during years of serviceunder traffic, the earthwork on which it is built must bestable and must furnish uniform support. Whereroughness, settlements and other distress develop inpavement during service under traffic, the cause often isa deficiency in the stability of earthwork which supportsthe pavement.Uniformity of earthwork is necessary and impor-tant to obtain high stability and long term performanceat all locations throughout the length and width of theproject. Consider, for example, a highway project where95 percent of the earthwork was performed in accor-dance with the specifications. But 5 percent wasnonspecification and low stability material which oc-curred in many small areas distributed throughout theproject. Pavement roughness and distress developed inthese areas during service under traffic loading. Such aproject probably would be evaluated by the travelingpublic as a “rough job” or a “poorly constructed”project. No notice or credit would be given to the 95percent of the work which was constructed properly.The entire project might be discredited and considered poorbecause of a relative small proportion of poor earthwork construction.The foregoing assumed example is intended to il-lustrate the need for consistent compliance withearthwork specifications in all areas, both large andsmall, throughout the length of the project, and through-out the time from the beginning to the end of earthwork construction.