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Structural Analysis of Beams Notes.pdf

# Structural Analysis of Beams Notes.pdf

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Course note on Beam Structural Analysis
Course note on Beam Structural Analysis

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03/13/2013

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1
DEFLECTION OF BEAMS
Structures undergo deformation when subjected to loads. As a result of thisdeformation, deflection and rotation occur in structures. This deformation will disappear when the loads are removed provided the elastic limit of the material is not exceeded.Deformation in a structure can also occur due to change in temperature & settlement of supports.Deflection in any structure should be less than specified limits for satisfactory performance. Hence computing deflections is an important aspect of analysis of structures.There are various methods of computing deflections. Two popular methods arei)

Moment area Method, andii)

Conjugate beam methodIn both of these methods, the geometrical concept is used. These methods are idealfor statically determinate beams. The methods give a very quick solution when the beam issymmetrical.
Moment Area Method
This method is based on two theorems which are stated through an example.Consider a beam AB subjected to some arbitrary load as shown in Figure 1.Let the flexural rigidity of the beam be EI. Due to the load, there would be bendingmoment and BMD would be as shown in Figure 2. The deflected shape of the beam which isthe elastic curve is shown in Figure 3. Let C and D be two points arbitrarily chosen on the beam. On the elastic curve, tangents are drawn at deflected positions of C and D. The anglesmade by these tangents with respect to the horizontal are marked as
C
θ
and
D
θ
. Theseangles are nothing but slopes. The change is the angle between these two tangents isdemoted as
CD
θ
. This change in the angel is equal to the area of the
EIM
diagram between thetwo points C and D. This is the area of the shaded portion in figure 2.Hence
CD
θ
=
C
θ

D
θ
= Area of
EIM
diagram between C and D
CD
θ
= Area BM 1 (a)EIIt is also expressed in the integration mode as
CD
θ
=
dx
CD
EIM
1 (b)Equation 1 is the first moment area theorem which is stated as follows:
Statement of theorem I:
The change in slope between any two points on the elastic curve for a membersubjected to bending is equal to the area of
EIM
diagram between those two points.

2In figure 4, for the elastic curve a tangent is drawn at point C from which the verticalintercept to elastic curve at D is measured. This is demoted as K
CD
. This vertical intercept isgiven by
CD
= (Area
BM
X)
CD
2 (a)EIWhere
X
is the distance to the centroid of the shaded portion of
EIM
diagrammeasured from D. The above equation can be expressed in integration mode as

Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4

3
CD
=
EIMxdx
CD
2 (b)Equation (2) is the second moment area theorem which is stated as follows.
Statement of theorem II :
The vertical intercept to the elastic curve measured from the tangent drawn to theelastic curve at some other point is equal to the moment of
EIM
diagram, moment beingtaken about that point where vertical intercept is drawn.
Sign Convention:
While computing Bending moment at a section, if free body diagram of Left HandPortion (LHP) is considered, clockwise moment is taken as positive. If free body diagram oRight Hand Portion (RHP) is considered, anticlockwise moment is taken as positive. Whilesketching the Bending Moment Diagram (BMD), Sagging moment is taken as positive andHogging moment is taken as negative.
Proof of Moment Area Theorems:
Figure 5 shows the elastic curve for the elemental length dx of figure 2 to an enlargedscale. In this figure, R represents the radius of curvature. Then from equation of bending,with usual notations,
IM
=
E
(3)From figure 5,
Rdθ = dx
Hence R =
d
θ
dx
Substituting this value of R in equation (3),
IM
=
  
d
θ
dxE

IM
= E
  
dxd
θ

=
EIM
dx
dθ is nothing but change in angle over the elemental length dx. Hence to compute
change in angle from C to D,
θ
CD
=
CD
d
θ
=
CD
EIM
dxHence the proof.