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AFM mod

AFM mod

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Published by bluebelle2

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Published by: bluebelle2 on Feb 17, 2013
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11/02/2013

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Electronic Fuel Injection and the 22R-TE engine-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Part 2: Modifying the stoc
 
EFI systemWhat the hell *is* an AFM?In stoc
 
form, the 22RTE uses an air flow meter, a
 
a AFM, flapper door, or vane-type meter, to measure the amount of air entering the engine. Please get this bit of terminology right, as an AFM is not a MAF (mass air flow meter), nor is ita MAP (manifold absolute pressure) sensor.An AFM measures air flow through what is essentially a mechanical process, whereincoming air deflects a flap in an enclosed space. More air coming in = more deflection of the flap. Crudely spea
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ing, a potentiometer is connected to the flap, and as the flap moves, the potentiometer moves, and this shapes the electricalsignal that is sent to the ECU.To control the movement of this flap/aramture, the AFM is fitted with a flat-wound spring that is used to apply tension to the flap. This spring is held in place, and adjusted, via a plastic gear and a wire "holder". When this gear is tightened (turned cloc
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wise) relative to the flat wound spring inside of it, it becomes harder for the door to open, and this translates to a leaner mixture (more air needs to flow in to move the door by a given amount, meaning theat the mixtureis leaner relative to its starting point before adjustment). Turning the gear counter-cloc
 
wise has just the opposite effect, as the looser gear lets more airin relative to "stoc
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".--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Remember:Turning the gear CLOCKWISE LEANS OUT THE MIXTURE.Turning the gear COUNTER-CLOCKWISE RICHENS THE MIXTURE--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Generally spea
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ing, each tooth of the gear is equal to about a 2% change in thetransient mixture (with stoc
 
injectors).-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Why would you want to adjust this thing?The AFM is a curious device. It is simple to adjust, but difficult to adjust correctly. Most people seem to believe that their engines *must need more fuel*, so they quic
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ly head to the AFM and begin dialing in more fuel...and then their engine bogs down and bellows blac
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smo
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e and they wonder why it doesn't run better. In my opinion, the
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ey to properly adjusting your AFM is go slowly and don'tma
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e the engine burn more fuel than it's capable of burning.Two other rules of thumb for dealing with the AFM:**ALWAYS** mar
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the stoc
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starting position of the gear. Since all adjustments are relative, failure to mar
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the starting position ma
 
es it impossible to
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now where you are relative to stoc
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.If you don't
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now what you're doing, you're more li
 
ely to screw things up thanma
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e them better.Things that improve the engine's ability to breathe, li
 
e a header, a free flow
 
exhaust, and a cam, and, (most especially) more boost generally cause the engineto run leaner with the stoc
 
AFM setting, because more air is able to move through the engine on a given combustion cycle. Consequently, if you've made these changes, you can gain better performance and realize a better air/fuel ratio by richening the mixture by a few "clic
 
s", or gear teeth. How many really depends on the exact nature of your mods, the size of your injectors,and your altitude above sea level, though I offer a few rough guidelines below.One piece of advice that can't be overstated is to ALWAYS pull the EFI fuse fora couple of minutes after ma
 
ing any adjustment, so that the ECU has the opportunity to reset itself, and then drive around and see how things run. If the AFM is set too rich, the engine will bog down and mileage will suc
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. If it's set toolean, it will perform better up to the point where the in-cylinder temps get toohot and the mixture too volatile, and then you may experience detonation. If you experience ANY
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noc
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ing or pinging, STOP and enrichen the mixture. So ta
 
e small steps, and don't equate a rich mixture with better performance, as the enginecan only burn so much fuel at a time. If you haven't made changes to the engine's compression ratio, head, cam, throttle body, or boost, your AFM adjustments are going to be modest at best.Here's a quic
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cheat sheet of some possible AFM adjustments, based on some common modifications. Remember, this is intended as a rough guide, so use your own best judgement and always proceed with caution. I ta
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e *absolutely no responsibility* for anything you decide to do as a result of reading this page, and it willbe SOLEY YOUR PROBLEM if you melt your engine.The following are intended to be additive, and follow what I see as a common order of modification. Your mileage may vary **greatly** from what's listed below!!If you've added a free flowing exhaust and a K&N (or similar) filter, you can probably adjust your AFM 1 tooth richer.If you've changed cams, you can probably adjust your AFM 1-2 teeth richer.If you've installed a big bore throttle body, you can probably adjust your AFM 1-2 teeth richer.If you've ported and polished your head and installed bigger valves, you can probably adjust your AFM 1 tooth richer.If you've modestly increased boost, you can probably adjust your AFM 1-2 teeth richer.If you've added an intercooler and aggressively increased boost (say, in the 13.5 - 15 psi range), you can probably adjust your AFM 2-3 teeth richer, although you may hit the ECU's fuel cut parameter.If you've added an intercooler and a bigger turbo, and are running over 12 psi of boost...you had better get some bigger injectors in that puppy, as you won't be able to increase the fuel delivery via the AFM enough to meet demands withouthitting fuel cut!-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The AFM loo
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s li
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e it's really restrictive...is there anything I can do to ma
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eit flow more air?For many engines, an AFM is a perfectly adequate, albeit old fashioned, way ofmeasuring the air entering an engine. It is fairly simple, it is reasonably accurate, and it wor
 
s well much of the time. But it is restrictive. On a turbocharged engine, any restriction seems to become magnified, because the restriction literally compounds itself as engine load increases.At some point (usually after you've fitted a bigger turbo and have cran
 
ed the boost up to around 15 psi), the AFM is simply flowing as much air as it can -- the opening is too small, you're trying to draw in too much air, and the meter doo
 
r is as open as wide as it's going to go. This is called saturating the meter, and it is a true limit on engine performance: your engine would be capable of burning more fuel if only it could get a sufficient amount of air into the cylinders...So, what to do? There are essentially three approaches you can ta
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e at this point:You can fit a bigger AFM from another vehicle.You can fit an AFM replacement device, li
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e the Lin
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ElectroSystems "AFM Lin
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" or the Split Second MAF
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it.You can dump the whole stoc
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EFI setup -- AFM and ECU -- and replace it with a standalone, MAP based system, li
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e those made by SDS, Haltech, Electromotive, SpeedPro, Accel/DFI, Motec, etc.Let's loo
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at the first of these options (the other two will be dealt with in Part 3: Aftermar
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et EFI systems): -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Installing a bigger AFM-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Luc
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ily for 22RTE owners, Toyota made AFMs in two sizes, and for some reason, the 22RTE was fitted with the smaller of these. Swapping over to a larger AFM isn't particulary hard, but it does require some modifications to the new (and possibly old) AFM.Obviously, in order to put one of the bigger AFM's into your 22RTE, you will need to first acquire one. The bigger AFMs can be found in most jun
 
yards fairly cheaply. The one I used came from a 5M-GE Supra, but they can also be found on Cressidas and 3SGE MR2s, too.There are a few nice bonuses about getting the AFM from a Supra, though: the Supra AFMs have a built-in 82 MM cone filter adapter ring, so you can put a free-flowing air filter on without having to buy another adapter. Additionally, you canalso pilfer the two hoses on either side of the AFM: the short 45° angles hose, and the slightly longer (5"?) straight hose. You will need one or both of these hoses to mate the bigger AFM to the stoc
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turbo hose, although this might be a good time to rectify that situation , too.OK, I've got the larger AFM; now what?Even though Toyota essentially used two sizes of AFMs, they custom tailored theelectronic "traceboard" or resistor ladder that the AFM's armature s
 
ates over for each application. This means that your new AFM is not plug-and-play.To ma
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e the larger AFM wor
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on my engine, I removed the 5MGE AFM's traceboard and replaced it with the one from my 22RTE. I had a couple of reasons for doing itthis way: the 5MGE AFM puts out a signal that is the inverse of the 22RTE AFM'ssignal (greater-to-smaller voltage instead of smaller-to-greater voltage), andI had been told that the 22RTE AFM signal was non-linear, and had a "hump" in itto accommodate boost. I don't
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now if the last point is true, but the traceboard swap wor
 
ed fine for me, and my air/fuel ratios (and performance) have been very good. This is the "crude" method of doing this swap. Someone one the Old Celica Club mailing list did some research and has come up with a more sophisticatedmethod of performing this modification, which I list here. Please don't as
 
mequestions about his method; if you use it, you're on your own ;-)Once you've swapped over the internal electronics, you have the matter of plumbi

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