second language, some exceptions in the rule of second language, the culturaldifferences between their native culture and the target culture, and so on.According to Chapelle and Robers (1986),
learners with a high tolerance for ambiguity
are slightly more successful in certain language tasks. Clearly intolerancecan prevent the learners being creative in using the target language because of theworries about ambiguity. However,
too much tolerance of ambiguity
can also have anegative effect on their language learning. In this case, the learners cannoteffectively make the second language rules integrated with the whole languagesystem but they just use meaningless chunks learned by rote.
4) Reflectivity and Impulsivity
People have different personality tendencies toward reflectivity. Some people tendto make a quick, gambling guess at an answer to a problem. Others tend to make aslower, more calculated decision about the same problem. The former cognitivestyle is called “
impulsive or intuitive
” styles, and the latter one is called “
” styles. These personality traits have an effect on second languagelearning.
of second language tend to be quick to answer the questionsprovided by the teacher, but their answers are not so much accurate compared tothe reflective learners. On the other hand,
tend to make fewererrors but they react slower than the impulsive learners. For language teachers,they need to figure out the reflectivity of their students and adjust their teaching tothe traits. For example, they must not judge the errors of impulsive students tooharshly, and they need to be more patient to reflective learners in their class.
5) Visual and Auditory Styles
People have different preferences for the type of input: either visual or auditoryinput.
People who like visual input
tend to prefer reading and studying charts,drawings and other graphic information. On the other hand,
those who like auditory input
tend to have preference for listening to lectures and audiotapes. According to Joy Reid (1987), Korean students are significantly more visually oriented than nativeEnglish-speaking Americans.
(2) LEARNING STRATEGIES
Cook (2001) claims that
is a choice that the learner makes while