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Autonomous Military Robots Risk Ethics and Design

Autonomous Military Robots Risk Ethics and Design

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10/17/2011

 
 
Autonomous
 
Military
 
Robotics:
 
Risk,
 
Ethics,
 
and
 
Design
 
Prepared
 
for:
 
US
 
Department
 
of 
 
Navy,
 
Office
 
of 
 
Naval
 
Research
 
Prepared
 
by:
 
Patrick
 
Lin,
 
Ph.D.
 
George
 
Bekey,
 
Ph.D.
 
Keith
 
Abney,
 
M.A.
 
Ethics
 
&
 
Emerging
 
Technologies
 
Group
 
at
 
California
 
State
 
Polytechnic
 
University,
 
San
 
Luis
 
Obispo
 
Prepared
 
on:
 
December
 
20,
 
2008
 
This
 
work 
 
is
 
sponsored 
 
by 
 
the
 
Department 
 
of 
 
the
 
Navy,
 
Office
 
of 
 
Naval 
 
Research,
 
under 
 
award 
 
 
N00014
07 
1
1152.
 
 
i
 
Table
 
of 
 
Contents
 
Preface
 
iii
 
1.
 
Introduction
 
1
 
1.1.
 
Opening
 
Remarks
 
2
 
1.2.
 
Definitions
 
4
 
1.3.
 
Market
 
Forces
 
&
 
Considerations
 
5
 
1.4.
 
Report
 
Overview
 
9
 
2.
 
Military
 
Robotics
 
11
 
2.1.
 
Ground
 
Robots
 
12
 
2.2.
 
Aerial
 
Robots
 
14
 
2.3.
 
Marine
 
Robots
 
16
 
2.4.
 
Space
 
Robots
 
17
 
2.5.
 
Immobile/Fixed
 
Robots
 
18
 
2.6.
 
Robots
 
Software
 
Issues
 
19
 
2.7.
 
Ethical
 
Implications:
 
A
 
Preview
 
21
 
2.8.
 
Future
 
Scenarios
 
21
 
3.
 
Programming
 
Morality
 
25
 
3.1.
 
From
 
Operational
 
to
 
Functional
 
Morality
 
25
 
3.2.
 
Overview:
 
Top
Down
 
and
 
Bottom
Up
 
Approaches
 
27
 
3.3.
 
Top
Down
 
Approaches
 
28
 
3.4.
 
Bottom
Up
 
Approaches
 
34
 
3.5.
 
Supra
Rational
 
Faculties
 
37
 
3.6.
 
Hybrid
 
Systems
 
38
 
3.7.
 
First
 
Conclusions:
 
How
 
Best
 
to
 
Program
 
Ethical
 
Robots
 
40
 
4.
 
The
 
Laws
 
of 
 
War
 
and
 
Rules
 
of 
 
Engagement
 
43
 
4.1.
 
Coercion
 
and
 
the
 
LOW
 
43
 
4.2.
 
Just
War
 
Theory
 
and
 
the
 
LOW
 
44
 
4.3.
 
Just
War
 
Theory:
 
 Jus
 
ad 
 
Bellum
 
45
 
4.4.
 
Just
War
 
Theory:
 
 Jus
 
in
 
Bello
 
47
 
A u t o n o m o u s
 
M i l i t a r y
 
R o b o t i c s :
 
R i s k ,
 
E t h i c s ,
 
a n d
 
D e s i g n
 
Copyright
 
2008
 
©
 
Lin,
 
Abney,
 
and
 
Bekey.
 
All
 
trademarks,
 
logos
 
and
 
images
 
are
 
the
 
property
 
of 
 
their
 
respective
 
owners.
 
 
ii
 
4.5.
 
Rules
 
of 
 
Engagement
 
and
 
the
 
Laws
 
of 
 
War
 
53
 
4.6.
 
Just
War
 
Theory:
 
 Jus
 
 post 
 
Bellum
 
54
 
4.7.
 
First
 
Conclusions:
 
Relevance
 
to
 
Robots
 
54
 
5.
 
Law
 
and
 
Responsibility
 
55
 
5.1.
 
Robots
 
as
 
Legal
 
Quasi
Agents
 
55
 
5.2.
 
Agents,
 
Quasi
Agents,
 
and
 
Diminished
 
Responsibility
 
58
 
5.3.
 
Crime,
 
Punishment,
 
and
 
Personhood
 
59
 
6.
 
Technology
 
Risk
 
Assessment
 
Framework
 
63
 
6.1.
 
Acceptable
Risk
 
Factor:
 
Consent
 
63
 
6.2.
 
Acceptable
Risk
 
Factor:
 
Informed
 
Consent
 
66
 
6.3.
 
Acceptable
Risk
 
Factor:
 
The
 
Affected
 
Population
 
68
 
6.4.
 
Acceptable
Risk
 
Factor:
 
Seriousness
 
and
 
Probability
 
68
 
6.5.
 
Acceptable
Risk
 
Factor:
 
Who
 
Determines
 
Acceptable
 
Risk?
 
70
 
6.6.
 
Other
 
Risks
 
72
 
7.
 
Robot
 
Ethics:
 
The
 
Issues
 
73
 
7.1.
 
Legal
 
Challenges
 
73
 
7.2.
 
Just
War
 
Challenges
 
74
 
7.3.
 
Technical
 
Challenges
 
76
 
7.4.
 
Human
Robot
 
Challenges
 
79
 
7.5.
 
Societal
 
Challenges
 
81
 
7.6.
 
Other
 
and
 
Future
 
Challenges
 
84
 
7.7.
 
Further
 
and
 
Related
 
Investigations
 
Needed
 
86
 
8.
 
Conclusions
 
87
 
9.
 
References
 
92
 
A.
 
Appendix:
 
Definitions
 
100
 
A.1
 
Robot
 
100
 
A.2
 
Autonomy
 
103
 
A.3
 
Ethics
 
105
 
B.
 
Appendix:
 
Contacts
 
107
 
A u t o n o m o u s
 
M i l i t a r y
 
R o b o t i c s :
 
R i s k ,
 
E t h i c s ,
 
a n d
 
D e s i g n
 
Copyright
 
2008
 
©
 
Lin,
 
Abney,
 
and
 
Bekey.
 
All
 
trademarks,
 
logos
 
and
 
images
 
are
 
the
 
property
 
of 
 
their
 
respective
 
owners.
 

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