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fluid dynamics.doc

# fluid dynamics.doc

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Fluid mechanics notes
Fluid mechanics notes

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02/18/2013

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4. FLUID DYNAMICS
CHAPTER: 04
.
FLUID DYNAMICS
1.
Definition:
The fluid dynamics is the study of fluid motion with the forces causing the flow. The dynamic behavior of the fluid floe is analyzed by Newton’s Second law of motion whichrelates acceleration of the fluid flow with the applied force on the fluid. The fluid is assumed tobe (1) Incompressible (2) Non-viscous while applying this law . According to this law the netForce “F” acting on a fluid element multiplied by the acceleration in the direction of the appliedforce .F = m X a The forces acting on fluid flow areI.Gravity Force (F
g
)II.viscous Force (F
v
)III.Pressure Force (F
p
)IV.Turbulence Force (F
t
)V.Compressibility Force (F
c
) Total Force (F
t
) = F
g
+ F
v
+ F
g
+F
t
+ F
v
+ F
c
In case compressibility force F
c
is neglecting then above equation become Total Force (F
t
) = F
g
+ F
v
+ F
g
+F
t
+ F
v
This equation is called “Reynold’sequation of motion”
In case turbulence force F
t
is neglecting; then equation is called” NavierStroke’s equation”
In case Viscous force F
v
is neglecting; then equation is called” Euler’sEquation of motion”2.
EULER’S EQUATION OF MOTION
In Euler’s equation of motion, forces due to Gravity and pressure are taken intoconsideration. The following assumption made in the derivation of Euler’s Equationa.Fluid is ideal i.e. Non-viscousb.Flow is compressiblec.Flow is non-turbulenced.Flow is steady
Er Ravichandra Koti, Dept of Mech Engg, SIET, Tumkur.
Page No:

4. FLUID DYNAMICS
e.Flow is irrigationalf.Flow is one dimensional i.e along stream lineg.Velocity is uniform over the cross sectional areaEuler’s Equation is derived considering the motion of fluid element along astream line. Considering a stream line in which flow takes places in S-direction asshown below. Take a cylindrical cross section area dA and length dS on the streamline. The forces acting on the cylindrical elements area)Pressure Force = PdA { which is acting in the direction of flow }b)Pressure Force = (P + ds)x dA{Which is acting opposite to the direction oflow }c)The weight of the element =
PdA
(
P + dp .ds
)

dzdSStream Line
The resultant force on the S-direction = [The mass of fluid x Acceleration in S-direction (a
s
)]
PdA - (P + ds) x dA- cos = x a
s
________________(1)Where ‘a
s
is the acceleration in the direction of sa
s
= where v is a function of s and t= + = +If the flow is steady ; = 0
Er Ravichandra Koti, Dept of Mech Engg, SIET, Tumkur.
Page No:

4. FLUID DYNAMICS
a
s
=substitute the value of a
s
in equation (1) we get- ds x dA - cos = xDividing by+ cos + = 0From fig Cos =+ + = 0
+ gdz + vdv = 0 ____________________(2)
This equation is known as
Euler’s Equation
of motion
Bernoulli’s Equation from Euler’s Equation (For Ideal Fluid)
Bernoulli’s Theorem: it states that “in an ideal, incompressible and steady flow, the total energyat any point of the fluid is remains constant.” total energy consists of (i) pressure energy (ii)KEand (iii) PEBernoulli’s Equation is obtained by integrating the Euler’s Equation of motion from Equation (2)as+ + =constant if the flow is incompressible is constant then the equationbecome
+ gz + =
constant
+ + z =
constantwhere :
=
Pressure energy per unit weight or Kinetic Head
=
KE per unit weight or kinetic headZ = PE per unit weight or Potential head
Bernoulli’s Equation from Euler’s Equation (For Real Fluid)
Er Ravichandra Koti, Dept of Mech Engg, SIET, Tumkur.
Page No:

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