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Dictionar de Fotografie - En

Dictionar de Fotografie - En

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Published by Ruxandra Elena

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: Ruxandra Elena on Feb 18, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Photo Glossary - A
Abbe number 
denotes the degree of refraction of light of different wavelengths to differentextents, given by a transparent material, such as glass. The lower the Abbe number, the greater the dispersion of colors.
- the inability of a lens to produce a perfect, sharp image, especially towards theedge of the lens field. These faults can be reduced by compound lens constructions, and the useof small apertures.
•Abrasion marks
- marks on the emulsion surface of a film, caused by scratching. It can be dueto traces of dirt trapped between layers of film as it is wound on the spool, or to grit on thepressure plate.
•Absolute released images
- any images for which signed model or property releases are on fileand immediately available.
•Absolute temperature
- the temperature at which most molecular movement ceases. It is oftenreferred to as absolute zero (-273° C).
- the process by which light falling on a surface is partially absorbed by the surface.
- subjective, non-realistic image. An abstraction photograph generally contains adesign of patterns or shapes where the identity of a subject is not evident.
- chemical added to a developing solution to speed up the slow working action of the reducing agents in the solution.
•Acceptable Circle of Confusion
- the size of the largest circle which the eye cannot distinguishfrom a dot. In 35mm format cameras, a 0.03mm diameter circle of confusion is consideredacceptable. It is used to calculate depth-of-field or depth of focus.
•Acceptance angle
- see
•Accessory shoe
- metal or plastic fitting on the top of the camera which supports accessoriessuch as viewfinder, rangefinder, or flash gun.
•Acetate base
- non-inflammable base support for film emulsions which replaced the highlyinflammable cellulose nitrate base.
•Acetic acid
- chemical used for stop baths and to acidify acid fixing solution.
- solvent chemical used in certain processing solutions that contain materials notnormally soluble in water.
- lens system that has been corrected for chromatic aberration.
- chemical substance with a 
value below 7.
•Acid fixing solutions
- solutions which contain an acid to neutralize any carry-over of alkalinedeveloper on the negative or print.
•Acid hardener 
- substance used in acid fixer to help harden the gelatin of the emulsion.
•Acid rinse
- weak acid solution used after development and before fixation. By neutralizingalkaline developer left on the photographic material it arrests development.
- the ability of light to cause a chemical or physical change in a substance.
- early type of exposure calculator.
- subjective term for the visual sharpness of an image.
- objective measurement of image sharpness.
•Adapter ring
- circular mount, available in several sizes, enabling accessories such as filters tobe used with lenses of different diameters.
•Additive color 
- see
Additive printing
- color printing method which produces an image by giving three separateexposures, each filtered to one of the three primary color wavelengths, blue, green and red.
•Additive synthesis
- method of producing full-color images by mixing light of the three primarycolor wavelengths, blue, green and red.
Aerial perspective
- the distance or depth effect caused by atmospheric haze. Haze creates alarge amount of extraneous ultra-violet light to which all photographic emulsions are sensitive.
•AF lock
stops autofocus operation once the subject is in focus. Useful when shooting a subjectoutside the focus area in the viewfinder. The photographer should first lock the focus with thesubject inside the focus area, then recompose the shot as neccesary.
•Afocal lens
- lens attachment that alters the focal length of the camera lens without disturbingthe distance between the lens and the film plane.
•AF Sensor 
- the sensor used to detect focus.
- the treatment of negatives and prints to correct certain faults in exposure anddevelopment, or to create special effects.
- method by which fresh solution is brought into contact with the surface of sensitivematerials during photographic processing.
•Air bells
- bubbles of air clinging to the emulsion surface during processing.
•Air brushing
- method of retouching b&w or color photographs where dye is sprayed, under pressure, on to selected areas of the negative or print.
•Air-to-air photography
- photography of aircraft in flight from another aircraft.
•Albert effect
- effect that creates a reversed image. An exposed frame of film, treated with dilutechromic acid is exposed to light. Development then gives a positive image by darkening the filmgrains that were not initially affected by exposure.
Albumen paper 
- printing paper invented by Blanquart-Evrard in the mid-19th century whereegg whites were used to coat the paper base prior to sensitization. The albumen added to thebrightness of the white base and substantially improved printed highlights.
•Alcohol thermometer 
- instrument used for measuring temperature. It is an inexpensive andless accurate version of the mercury thermometer.
- denotes the degree of alkali in a solution, measured in
values. All values abovepH 7 are alkaline.
- work of art that treats one subject in the guise of another. An allegoric photographusually illustrates a subject that embodies a moral "inner meaning".
- chemical used in acid hardening fixing baths.
•Aluminum compounds
- groups of chemicals often used as hardeners in fixing baths.
•Ambient light
- the available light surrounding a subject. Light already existing in an indoor or outdoor setting that is not caused by any illumination supplied by the photographer.
- Mid-19th century photographic process introduced in 1851-52 by Frederick Scott Archer and Peter Fry. It used weak
 negatives which were bleached and backed by ablack background which produced the effect of a positive image.
- soluble reducing agent which works at low
•Ammonium chloride
- chemical used in toners and bleachers.
•Ammonium persulfate
- chemical used in super-proportional

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