: In T1, there are two types of framing formats. One is D4 (twelve bits group)
used in aligning the equipment which is used for framing and another is ESF (twentyfour bits group)
used in aligning the frames as well as in the maintenance of thechannel which is facilitated by the data link. In E1, there are two framing formats. One isa called the double frame
it uses the DS0 and another is the multi frame which is theindependent form.
More about T1 and E1
An E1 link operates over two separate sets of wires, usually twisted pair cable. Anominal 3 volt peak signal is encoded with pulses using a method that avoids longperiods without polarity changes. The line data rate is 2.048 Mbit/s (full duplex, i.e.2.048 Mbit/s downstream and 2.048 Mbit/s upstream) which is split into 32 timeslots,each being allocated 8 bits in turn. Thus each timeslot sends and receives an 8-bit PCMsample, usually encoded according to A-law algorithm, 8000 times per second (8 x8000 x 32 = 2,048,000). This is ideal for voice telephone calls where the voice issampled into an 8 bit number at that data rate and reconstructed at the other end. Thetimeslots are numbered from 0 to 31.
One timeslot (TS0) is reserved for framing purposes, and alternately transmits a fixedpattern. This allows the receiver to lock onto the start of each frame and match up eachchannel in turn. The standards allow for a full Cyclic Redundancy Check to beperformed across all bits transmitted in each frame, to detect if the circuit is losing bits(information), but this is not always used.One timeslot (TS16) is often reserved for signaling purposes, to control call setup andteardown according to one of several standard telecommunications protocols. Thisincludes Channel Associated Signaling (CAS) where a set of bits is used to replicateopening and closing the circuit (as if picking up the telephone receiver and pulsing digitson a rotary phone), or using tone signaling which is passed through on the voice circuitsthemselves. More recent systems used Common Channel Signaling (CCS) such asISDN or Signaling System 7 (SS7) which send short encoded messages with moreinformation about the call including caller ID, type of transmission required etc. ISDN isoften used between the local telephone exchange and business premises, whilst SS7 isalmost exclusively used between exchanges and operators. In theory, a single SS7signaling timeslot can control up to 4096 circuits per signaling channel using a 12-bitChannel Identification Code (CIC), thus allowing slightly more efficient use of theoverall transmission bandwidth because additional E1 links would use all 31 voicechannels. ANSI uses a larger 14-bit CIC and so can accommodate up to 16,384 circuits.In most environments, multiple signaling channels would be used to provide redundancyin case of faults or outages.Unlike the earlier T-carrier systems developed in North America, all 8 bits of each