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nguyenlieusxthucpham

nguyenlieusxthucpham

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Published by HocLieuMo

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Published by: HocLieuMo on Feb 19, 2009
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04/18/2013

\u0110\u1ea0IH\u1eccC \u0110\u00c0N\u1eb4NG
TR\u01af\u1edcNG\u0110\u1ea0I H\u1eccC B\u00c1CH KHOA
KHOA H\u00d3A K\u1ef8 THU\u1eacT
\ue001\ue002\ue000\ue002\ue002
B\u00c0I GI\u1ea2NG M\u00d4N H\u1eccC
NGUY\u00caN LI\u1ec6U S\u1ea2N XU\u1ea4T TH\u1ef0C PH\u1ea8M
M\u00e3 s\u1ed1 m\u00f4n h\u1ecdc: 1071163
S\u1ed1 t\u00edn ch\u1ec9: 2
Gi\u00e1o vi\u00ean ph\u1ee5 tr\u00e1ch: GVC \u2013 ThS Tr\u1ea7n Xu\u00e2n Ng\u1ea1ch
\u0110\u00e0N\u1eb5ng - 2007
0
1
M\u1ee4C L\u1ee4C
Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng I - M\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m m\u1edf \u0111\u1ea7u...........................................................1

1.1. Th\u1ef1c ph\u1ea9m.............................................................................................1 1.2. Ph\u1ee5 gia...................................................................................................1 1.3. Nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u th\u1ef1c ph\u1ea9m.........................................................................1

Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng II \u2013 Nh\u00f3m nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u rau qu\u1ea3.......................................................2

2.1.Thu h\u00e1i v\u00e0\u0111\u1ed9 t\u01b0\u01a1i.................................................................................2 2.2. M\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 th\u00e0nh ph\u1ea7n h\u00f3a h\u1ecdc li\u00ean quan\u0111\u1ebfn ch\u1ea5t l\u01b0\u1ee3ng rau qu\u1ea3.............3 2.3. Gi\u1edbi thi\u1ec7u m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 lo\u1ea1i rau qu\u1ea3\u0111i\u1ec3n h\u00ecnh..............................................8

Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng III \u2013 Nh\u00f3m nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u s\u00fac s\u1ea3n, th\u1ee7y s\u1ea3n....................................12
3.1. Th\u1ecbt v\u00e0 c\u00e1c s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m th\u1ecbt...................................................................12
3.2. M\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 th\u00e0nh ph\u1ea7n h\u00f3a h\u1ecdc v\u00e0 c\u1ea5u tr\u00fac li\u00ean

quan\u0111\u1ebfn ch\u1ea5t l\u01b0\u1ee3ng c\u1ee7a th\u1ecbt..............................................................12 3.3.Tr\u1ee9ng gia c\u1ea7m.....................................................................................15 3.4. Nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u s\u1eefa..................................................................................17 3.5. M\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 lo\u1ea1i ph\u1ee5 ph\u1ea9m s\u00fac s\u1ea3n, th\u1ee7y s\u1ea3n............................................18

Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng IV \u2013 Nh\u00f3m nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u l\u01b0\u01a1ng th\u1ef1c...............................................19

4.1. C\u1ea5u t\u1ea1o v\u00e0 th\u00e0nh ph\u1ea7n h\u00f3a h\u1ecdc c\u1ee7a h\u1ea1t c\u1ed1c.......................................19 4.2. Gi\u1edbi thi\u1ec7u c\u00e1c lo\u1ea1i h\u1ea1t c\u1ed1c ch\u1ee7 y\u1ebfu....................................................21 4.3. C\u1ea5u t\u1ea1o v\u00e0 th\u00e0nh ph\u1ea7n h\u00f3a h\u1ecdc c\u1ee7a c\u1ee7 l\u01b0\u01a1ng th\u1ef1c.............................23

Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng V \u2013 Nh\u00f3m nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u d\u1ea7u m\u1ee1 v\u00e0 tinh d\u1ea7u..................................24
5.1. Nh\u00f3m nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u d\u1ea7u m\u1ee1.................................................................24
5.2. Nh\u00f3m nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u tinh d\u1ea7u................................................................49
Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng VI \u2013 Ng\u00f3m nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u ch\u00e8, thu\u1ed1c l\u00e1, c\u00e0 ph\u00ea, ca cao.......................

6.1. Nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u ch\u00e8...................................................................................... 6.2. Nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u c\u00e0 ph\u00ea................................................................................. 6.3.Nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u thu\u1ed1c l\u00e1............................................................................... 6.4. Nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u cacao ..................................................................................

2
Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng I: M\u1ed8T S\u1ed0 KH\u00c1I NI\u00caM C\u01a0 B\u1ea2N
1.1. Th\u1ef1c ph\u1ea9m :
L\u00e0 v\u1eadt ph\u1ea9m t\u1ef1 nhi\u00ean\u1edf d\u1ea1ng th\u00f4,\u0111\u01a1n l\u1ebb ho\u1eb7c qua ch\u1ebf bi\u1ebfn, ph\u1ee9c h\u1ee3p,\u0103n\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c, th\u1ecfa

m\u1ea3n nhu c\u1ea7u c\u1ee7a ng\u01b0\u1eddi s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng nh\u01b0 :
- Cung c\u1ea5p c\u00e1c ch\u1ea5t dinh d\u01b0\u1ee1ng: protein, gluxit, lipit, vitamin, kho\u00e1ng \u2026
- An to\u00e0n cho s\u1ee9c kh\u1ecfe .
- T\u1ea1o c\u1ea3m gi\u00e1c ngon, th\u00fa v\u1ecb (v\u0103n h\u00f3a\u1ea9m th\u1ef1c ).

- Ph\u00f9 h\u1ee3p v\u1edbi th\u00f3i quen, truy\u1ec1n th\u1ed1ng: c\u1ee7a c\u00e1 nh\u00e2n , gia\u0111\u00ecnh, v\u00f9ng , mi\u1ec1n , qu\u1ed1c gia,
ch\u00e2u l\u1ee5c.
1.2. Ph\u1ee5 gia :
L\u00e0 c\u00e1c ch\u1ebf ph\u1ea9m t\u01b0 nhi\u00ean ho\u1eb7c t\u1ed5ng h\u1ee3p h\u00f3a h\u1ecdc , kh\u00f4ng ph\u1ea3i th\u1ef1c ph\u1ea9m , d\u01b0\u1ee3c\u0111\u01b0a
v\u00e0o th\u1ef1c ph\u1ea9m m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch c\u1ed1 \u00fd\u0111\u1ec3 th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n nh\u1eefng m\u1ee5c\u0111\u00edch k\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt nh\u1ea5t\u0111\u1ecbnh .
Hi\u1ec7n nay ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta chia ph\u1ee5 gia l\u00e0m 2 lo\u1ea1i ch\u00ednh :

- Ph\u1ee5 gia th\u1ef1c ph\u1ea9m :c\u00f2n l\u01b0u l\u1ea1i trong th\u1ef1c ph\u1ea9m\u1edf d\u1ea1ng nguy\u00ean th\u1ec3 ho\u1eb7c d\u1eabn xu\u1ea5t nh\u01b0ng\u0111\u1ea3m b\u1ea3o an to\u00e0n cho ng\u01b0\u1eddi s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng. Lo\u1ea1i n\u00e0y bao g\u1ed3m 6 nh\u00f3m ch\u00ednh l\u00e0: ch\u1ea5t b\u1ea3o qu\u1ea3n, ph\u1ee5 gia dinh d\u01b0\u1ee1ng, ph\u1ee5 gia t\u1ea1o m\u00f9i th\u1ef1c ph\u1ea9m, ph\u1ee5 gia t\u1ea1o m\u00e0u th\u1ef1c ph\u1ea9m ,ch\u1ea5t t\u1ea1o c\u1ea5u tr\u00fac v\u00e0 c\u00e1c ph\u1ee5 gia kh\u00e1c .

- Ch\u1ea5t h\u1ed5 tr\u1ee3 k\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt :kh\u00f4ng\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c l\u01b0u l\u1ea1i trong th\u1ef1c ph\u1ea9m sau khi th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n xong ch\u01b0c n\u0103ng k\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt. Lo\u1ea1i n\u00e0y bao g\u1ed3m 19 nh\u00f3m ch\u00ednh l\u00e0: ch\u1ea5t ch\u1ed1ng b\u1ecdt, ch\u1ea5t x\u00fac t\u00e1c, t\u00e1c nh\u00e2n l\u00e0m trong v\u00e0 tr\u1ee3 l\u1ecdc , ch\u1ea5t l\u00e0m b\u1ec1n m\u00e0u, t\u00e1c nh\u00e2n l\u1ea1nh, t\u00e1c nh\u00e2n ch\u1ed1ng v\u00f3n c\u1ee5c, ch\u1ea5t b\u00f4i tr\u01a1n ,ch\u1ea5t c\u1ed1 \u0111\u1ecbnh enzim, c\u00e1c enzim, dung m\u00f4i , t\u00e1c nh\u00e2n l\u00e0m bi\u1ebfn\u0111\u1ed5i s\u1ef1 k\u1ebft tinh , t\u00e1c nh\u00e2n k\u1ebft t\u1ee5 , nh\u1ef1a trao\u0111\u1ed5i ion ,t\u00e1c nh\u00e2n ch\u1ed1ng d\u00ednh khu\u00f4n , t\u00e1c nh\u00e2n ch\u1ed1ng vi sinh v\u1eadt , kh\u00ed tr\u01a1 d\u00f9ng trong bao g\u00f3i th\u1ef1c ph\u1ea9m , ch\u1ea5t t\u1ea9y r\u1eeda v\u00e0 l\u00e0m r\u1ee5ng l\u00f4ng th\u00fa, c\u00e1c ch\u1ea5t dinh d\u01b0\u1ee1ng cho vi sinh v\u1eadt v\u00e0 c\u00e1c ch\u1ea5t h\u1ed5 tr\u1ee3 k\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt kh\u00e1c .

1.3. Nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u th\u1ef1c ph\u1ea9m :
L\u00e0 n\u00f4ng s\u1ea3n th\u1ef1c ph\u1ea9m t\u01b0 nhi\u00ean\u1edf d\u1ea1ng th\u00f4 ,\u0111\u01a1n l\u1ebb ho\u0103c qua ch\u1ebf bi\u1ebfn , ph\u1ee9c h\u1ee3p,

trong m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p c\u00f3 th\u1ec3\u0103n\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c, th\u1ecfa m\u1ea3n nhu c\u1ea7u c\u1ee7a ng\u01b0\u1eddi s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng nh\u01b0 :
-\u0102n\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c v\u1edbi t\u01b0 c\u00e1ch l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t th\u1ef1c ph\u1ea9m .
- Y\u1ebfu t\u1ed1 \u0111\u1ea7u v\u00e0o c\u1ee7a c\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7 sau thu ho\u1ea1ch (c\u1ea5t gi\u1eef , d\u1ef1 tr\u1eef ,ch\u1ebf bi\u1ebfn ).
- H\u00e0ng h\u00f3a l\u01b0u th\u00f4ng tr\u00ean th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng .
C\u00f3 m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 c\u00e1ch ph\u00e2n lo\u1ea1i nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u th\u1ef1c ph\u1ea9m , ch\u1eb3ng h\u1ea1n :
N\u1ebfu d\u1ef1a v\u00e0o th\u00e0nh ph\u1ea7n h\u00f3a h\u1ecdc , th\u00e0nh ph\u1ea7n dinh d\u01b0\u1edfng ch\u1ee7y\u1ebfu , ta c\u00f3 c\u00e1c nh\u00f3m :
- Nh\u00f3m nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u gi\u00e0u protein: th\u1ecbt , c\u00e1 , tr\u1ee9ng ,\u0111\u1eadu t\u01b0\u01a1ng ,\u2026
- Nh\u00f3m nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u gi\u00e0u lip\u00edt :\u0111\u1eadu ph\u1ee5ng , d\u1eeba , c\u1ecd d\u1ea7u,\u0111\u00e0o l\u1ed9n h\u1ed9t.

- Nh\u00f3m nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u gi\u00e0u tinh b\u1ed9t: c\u00e1c lo\u1ea1i h\u1ea1t c\u1ed1c (l\u00faa m\u00ec, l\u00faa , ng\u00f4 , cao l\u01b0\u01a1ng ,
k\u00ea\u2026) v\u00e0 c\u1ee7 c\u00f3 b\u1ed9t (khoai t\u00e2y , s\u1eafn , khoai lang , s\u1eafn d\u00e2y \u2026).
- Nh\u00f3m nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u gi\u00e0u c\u00e1c ch\u1ea5t\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng: m\u00eda , c\u1ee7 c\u1ea3i\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng, th\u1ed1t n\u1ed1t, c\u00e1c lo\u1ea1i qu\u1ea3
chin .- Nh\u00f3m nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u tinh d\u1ea7u :b\u1ea1c h\u00e0 , s\u1ea3 , qu\u1ebf , h\u01b0\u01a1ng nhu \u2026

- Nh\u00f3m nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u h\u00f3a sinh : ch\u00e8 , ca ph\u00ea , thu\u1ed1c l\u00e1 , ca cao .
N\u1ebfu d\u1ef1a v\u00e0o ngu\u1ed3n g\u1ed1c sinh v\u1eadt v\u00e0 t\u1ef1 nhi\u00ean , ta c\u00f3 c\u00e1c nh\u00f3m :
- Nh\u00f3m nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u\u0111\u1ed9ng v\u1eadt.
- Nh\u00f3m nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u th\u1ef1c v\u1eadt .
- Nh\u00f3m nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u sinh v\u1eadt b\u1eadc th\u1ea5p: rong t\u1ea3o, n\u1ea5m\u0103n .

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