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Centripetal Force Lab

Centripetal Force Lab

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Published by: mt9260 on Feb 19, 2009
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07/29/2013

Mason TrangHour 5December 11, 2008
I.
Title:
AP Physics Centripetal Force - Radius Lab
II.
Purpose:
To find out if the amount of centripetal force needed to keep a body in orbit depends on theorbital radius (length of string).
III.
Hypothesis:
If the orbital radius is increased, then the amount of centripetal force increases. Thecentripetal force increases because the further an object is from the source of force, the greater the forcehas to be to keep it moving at a constant velocity.
IV.
Variables:
Independent (manipulated):length of string / orbital radiusDependant (responding):tension of stringControlled:mass and velocity
V. Procedure:
a.
Materials
i.
Two Meter Sticks
ii.
String with Plastic Tube and Rubber Stopper Attachediii.Tapeiv.Logger Pro Force Probev.Computer with Logger Pro Software b.Data Collection
i.
Gather materials.ii.Use tape to attach plastic tube to meter stick.iii.Connect the force probe to the end of the string opposite from rubber stopper.iv.Zero the force probe.
v.
Hold the force probe firmly to the meter stick at a selected distance so the orbital radiusstays constant. Distances used were: .68m, .74m, .80m, and .90m.
vi.
Measure the radius of the string (from rubber stopper to the plastic tube).vii.Swing the rubber stopper in circular motion above head.viii.Count the number of rotations in a 10 second interval.ix.Collect average force data with Logger Pro over 10second interval.
x.
Calculate velocity for selected radius.
Velocity =
circumference
×
rotationstime

xi.
Choose a different radius and calculate necessary rotations in a 10 second interval tomaintain the same velocity of initial radius trial.
rotations
=
10sec
onds
×
velocityradius
×
2
π

xii.Repeat steps v-x for four different radius measurements.c.Graphing in Exceli.Enter Radius and average Force in two separate columns.ii.Highlight radius and average force data and create a graph.iii.Label the x-axis with “Radius (m)” and the y-axis with “Force (N)iv.Add a trend line
v.
Create an adjusted graph with Radius
n
.
vi.
Find an n value that makes a linear graph and the R
2
value less than or equal to 1.
VI.Data

Mason TrangHour 5December 11, 2008
Mass (g)Radius(m)Force(N)11.4 0.68 1.014511.4 0.74 0.875511.4 0.8 0.807211.4 0.9 0.7204

Mason TrangHour 5December 11, 2008
VII.Calculations for Data
Velocity =
circumference
×
rotationstime
 
=
2
π
74
cm
×
17
rotations
10sec
onds

=
2
π
74
cm
×
17
rotations
10sec
onds

=
7
90.42cm/sVelocity = 790.42cm/s Initial Radius. For r =74cm,
rotations
=
10sec
onds
×
velocityradius
×
2
π

For r =68cm,
rotations
=
10sec
onds
×
790
cm
/
s
68
cm
×
2
π

=18.5 rotations For r =80cm,
rotations
=
10sec
onds
×
790
cm
/
s
80
cm
×
2
π

=15.7 rotations For r =90cm,
rotations
=
10sec
onds
×
790
cm
/
s
90
cm
×
2
π

=14 rotations
VIII.
Conclusions:
The collected data shows that there is a relationship between the orbital radius of anobject and its centripetal force. The collected data and graph show that the radius is inverse cubically proportional to centripetal force. So as the radius increases and mass and velocity remain the same, thecentripetal force will decrease. The hypothesis was incorrect because as the radius of an objects circular motion is increased, the centripetal force decreases. Comparing the findings with the centripetal forceformula (F=mv
2
/r), they are not correct. The findings showed 1/r

3,
while the formula would simplify toF=1/r when only factoring radius.It took a while to figure out the best, accurate method to doing this experiment. The data collectioncould have been improved the force probe was taped to the meter stick at each radius length. It wouldhave taken longer to attach the force probe and remove it for each radius setting. Also, the rubber stopper was difficult to rotate at an exact horizontal. The velocities in the experiment wereapproximate and were difficult to get exactly a certain amount of rotations in 10 seconds for eachradius setting.If there was a device that could keep the rubber stopper at an exact constant velocity, it could increasethe accuracy of this experiment. It would be easier to time the stopper with some type of photo gate probe that it could orbit through. Also, if more trials for more radii were conducted, the accuracycould have been improved.

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