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Carnot Cycle Basics of Thermodynamics

Carnot Cycle Basics of Thermodynamics

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Published by: Milan D Saint on Feb 19, 2013
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03/12/2014

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4.1 Carnot Cycle :
A Carnot gas cycle operating in a given temperature range is shown in the T-s diagramin Fig. 4.1(a). One way to carry out the processes of this cycle is through the use of steady-state, steady-flow devices as shown in Fig. 4.1(b). The isentropic expansionprocess 2-3 and the isentropic compression process 4-1 can be simulated quite well bya well-designed turbine and compressor respectively, but the isothermal expansionprocess 1-2 and the isothermal compression process 3-4 are most difficult to achieve.Because of these difficulties, a steady-flow Carnot gas cycle is not practical. The Carnot gas cycle could also be achieved in a cylinder-piston apparatus (areciprocating engine) as shown in Fig. 4.2(b). The Carnot cycle on the p-v diagram is asshown in Fig. 4.2(a), in which processes 1-2 and 3-4 are isothermal while processes 2-3and 4-1 are isentropic. We know that the Carnot cycle efficiency is given by theexpression.
3L4thH12
 T TT=1 - =1 - =1 - TTT
η
 
 
 
143
L
(a)
heat inisothermal Turbine
Work out 
Isentropic TurbineWork out 
Work in
heat out 
Isentropic compressor Isothermal Compressor Work in
134
 
Fig.4.1. Steady flow Carnot engine
 
 
 p143(a)Pistondisplacement 
Process 12: isothermal Process 2 3: isentropic Process 41: isentropic Process 34: isothermal 
(b)
 
Fig.4.2. Reciprocating Carnot engine

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