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Solid Waste Management

Solid Waste Management

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Published by Khaqan Amin

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Published by: Khaqan Amin on Feb 19, 2013
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Waste Management 
Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal, managing and monitoringof waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and the process is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics.Waste management is a distinct practice from resource recovery which focuses on delaying therate of consumption of natural resources. All wastes materials, whether they are solid, liquid,gaseous or radioactive fall within the remit of waste managementWaste management practices can differ for developed and developing nations, for urban andrural areas, and for residential and industrial producers. Management for non-hazardous wasteresidential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of localgovernment authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial wasteis usually the responsibility of the generator subject to local, national or international controls.
Types of Disposal
Land Fills
Disposal of waste in a landfill involves burying the waste, and this remains a common practice inmost countries. Landfills were often established in abandoned or unused quarries, mining voidsor borrow pits. A properly designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relativelyinexpensive method of disposing of waste materials. Older, poorly designed or poorly managedlandfills can create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter,attraction of vermin, and generation of liquid leachate. Another common product of landfills isgas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide), which is produced as organic waste breaks down anaerobically. This gas can create odor problems, kill surface vegetation, and is agreenhouse gas.
Incineration
Incineration is a disposal method in which solid organic wastes are subjected to combustion so asto convert them into residue and gaseous products. This method is useful for disposal of residueof both solid waste management and solid residue from waste water management.This processreduces the volumes of solid waste to 20 to 30 percent of the original volume. Incineration andother high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as "thermal treatment".Incinerators convert waste materials into heat, gas, steam and ash.
 
Recycling
 
Recycling is a resource recovery practice that refers to the collection and reuse of wastematerials such as empty beverage containers. The materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products. Material for recycling may be collected separately from
 
general waste using dedicated bins and collection vehicles are sorted directly from mixed wastestreams and are known as kerb-side recycling, it requires the owner of the waste to separate itinto various different bins (typically wheelie bins) prior to its collection.The most common consumer products recycled include aluminium such as beverage cans,copper such as wire, steel food and aerosol cans, old steel furnishings or equipment, polyethylene and PET bottles, glass bottles and jars, paperboard cartons, newspapers, magazinesand light paper, and corrugated fiberboard boxes.
Biological reprocessing
Recoverable materials that are organic in nature, such as plant material, food scraps, and paper  products, can be recovered through composting and digestion processes to decompose theorganic matter. The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes.
Composting:
Compost organic matter that has been decomposed and recycled as a fertilizer andsoil amendment. Compost is a key ingredient in organic farming.
Anaerobic digestion:
Anaerobic digestion is a series of processes in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. It is used for industrial or domestic purposes to manage waste and/or to release energy. Much of the fermentation used industrially to produce food and drink products, as well as home fermentation, uses anaerobic digestion. Silageis produced by anaerobic digestion.
Microbial fuel cell:
A microbial fuel cell (MFC) or biological fuel cell is a bio-electrochemical system that drives acurrent by mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature. Mediator-less MFCs are a morerecent development; due to this, factors that affect optimum efficiency, such as the strain of  bacteria used in the system, type of ion-exchange membrane, and system conditions(temperature, pH, etc.) are not particularly well understood.
Waste handling and transport
Waste collection methods vary widely among different countries and regions. Domestic wastecollection services are often provided by local government authorities, or by private companiesin the industry. Some areas, especially those in less developed countries, do not have a formalwaste-collection system. Examples of waste handling systems include:
 
In Europe and a few other places around the world, a few communities use a proprietarycollection system known as Envac, which conveys refuse via underground conduits usinga vacuum system. Other vacuum-based solutions include the MetroTaifun single-line andring-line systems.

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