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APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES - I

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES - I

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Published by: Examville.com on Feb 19, 2009
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12/30/2012

 
 
APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES -I
The derivatives of functions have many applications in various disciplines e.g.engineering, science, social science and many other fields. Here we shall discuss a fewimportant applications among them, as example,a)
 
finding the equations of tangent and normal lines on a curve at a point,b)
 
finding the rate of change of quantities,c)
 
solving distance-velocity-acceleration problems,d)
 
approximation of some function values,e)
 
finding the intervals in which a function is increasing or decreasing,f)
 
finding the turning points on the graph of a function which help us to locate pointswhere largest or smallest values (local extrema) of a function occurs.
TANGENTS & NORMAL LINES
 
 We know that,slope of the
tangent
drawn on the curve at a point= the derivative of the function at that point =
 f 
x
` a
 This means, if we take a point
 x
0
,f x
0
` ab c
or
 x
0
,y
0
` a
on the graph of the curve
 y = f(x)
,the slope of the tangent at that point is
 f 
x
0
` a
. We can then write the equation of thetangent at that point by the slope-point form of a straight line.The equation of the tangent is
 y
@
y
0
=
 f 
x
0
` a
x
@
 x
0
` a
 The
normal line
to the curve at a point is the line perpendicular to the tangent line at thatpoint. Because the product of slopes of two perpendicular lines is -1, the slopes of thetangent line and the normal line are negative reciprocals of one another.Slope of the
normal
drawn on the curve at a point = the negative reciprocal of thederivative of the function at that point =
@
1
 f 
x
` a
 ffffffffffffffffff
 The equation of the normal is
 y
@
y
0
=
@
1
 f 
x
0
` a
 fffffffffffffffffffff
 x
@
 x
0
` a
 
 
 Example : Find the equation of the tangent and normal lines to the curve
 f x
` a
=
3
 x
2
+
4 at the point where x=3.Solution :
 f 
3
` a
=
3.3
2
+
4
=
31
Sothepoint is
3,31
b c
 f x
` a
=
3
 x
2
+
4
 f 
x
` a
=
6
 xTheslopeof thetangent at thepoint 
3,31
b c
ism
=
 f 
3
` a
=
6.3
=
18
Usingthepoint 
@
slopeform of astaright line,theequationof thetangent is y
@
y
1
=
m x
@
 x
1
` a
 , y
@
31
=
18
x
@
3
` a
18
 x
@
 y
@
23
=
0 
Theslopeof thenormalat 
3,31
b c
ism
=
@
1
 f 
3
` a
 ffffffffffffffffff
=
@
118
 fffffff
Theequationof thenormalisy
@
y
1
=
m x
@
 x
1
` a
 , y
@
31
=
@
118
 fffffff
 x
@
3
` a
18
y
@
31
b c
=
@
x
@
3
` a
18
 y
@
558
=
@
 x
+
3
 x
+
18
 y
@
561
=
0 

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