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APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES - I

# APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES - I

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Published by: Examville.com on Feb 19, 2009

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12/30/2012

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES -I
The derivatives of functions have many applications in various disciplines e.g.engineering, science, social science and many other fields. Here we shall discuss a fewimportant applications among them, as example,a)

finding the equations of tangent and normal lines on a curve at a point,b)

finding the rate of change of quantities,c)

solving distance-velocity-acceleration problems,d)

approximation of some function values,e)

finding the intervals in which a function is increasing or decreasing,f)

finding the turning points on the graph of a function which help us to locate pointswhere largest or smallest values (local extrema) of a function occurs.
TANGENTS & NORMAL LINES

We know that,slope of the
tangent
drawn on the curve at a point= the derivative of the function at that point =
f
x
` a
This means, if we take a point
x
0
,f x
0
` ab c
or
x
0
,y
0
` a
on the graph of the curve
y = f(x)
,the slope of the tangent at that point is
f
x
0
` a
. We can then write the equation of thetangent at that point by the slope-point form of a straight line.The equation of the tangent is
y
@
y
0
=
f
x
0
` a
x
@
x
0
` a
The
normal line
to the curve at a point is the line perpendicular to the tangent line at thatpoint. Because the product of slopes of two perpendicular lines is -1, the slopes of thetangent line and the normal line are negative reciprocals of one another.Slope of the
normal
drawn on the curve at a point = the negative reciprocal of thederivative of the function at that point =
@
1
f
x
` a
ffffffffffffffffff
The equation of the normal is
y
@
y
0
=
@
1
f
x
0
` a
fffffffffffffffffffff
x
@
x
0
` a

Example : Find the equation of the tangent and normal lines to the curve
f x
` a
=
3
x
2
+
4 at the point where x=3.Solution :
f
3
` a
=
3.3
2
+
4
=
31
Sothepoint is
3,31
b c
f x
` a
=
3
x
2
+
4
f
x
` a
=
6
xTheslopeof thetangent at thepoint
3,31
b c
ism
=
f
3
` a
=
6.3
=
18
Usingthepoint
@
slopeform of astaright line,theequationof thetangent is y
@
y
1
=
m x
@
x
1
` a
, y
@
31
=
18
x
@
3
` a
18
x
@
y
@
23
=
0
Theslopeof thenormalat
3,31
b c
ism
=
@
1
f
3
` a
ffffffffffffffffff
=
@
118
fffffff
Theequationof thenormalisy
@
y
1
=
m x
@
x
1
` a
, y
@
31
=
@
118
fffffff
x
@
3
` a
18
y
@
31
b c
=
@
x
@
3
` a
18
y
@
558
=
@
x
+
3
x
+
18
y
@
561
=
0

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