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Published by ijeraeditor
IJERA (International journal of Engineering Research and Applications) is International online, ... peer reviewed journal. For more detail or submit your article, please visit www.ijera.com
IJERA (International journal of Engineering Research and Applications) is International online, ... peer reviewed journal. For more detail or submit your article, please visit www.ijera.com

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Published by: ijeraeditor on Feb 20, 2013
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RajendraDarbar, Prof. D. M. Patel, Prof. Jaimin Patel / International Journal of EngineeringResearch and Applications (IJERA)ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.743-746
 
743 | Page
Process Parameters Optimization Of FDMProcess AndApplication Of Taguchi Approach And ANN
 – 
The Review
RajendraDarbar
[1]
Prof. D. M. Patel
[1]
Prof. Jaimin Patel
[2]
Research scholar Associate professor Assistant professor
[1]
U. V. Patel College Of Engineering, Ganpat University, Kherva, Mehsana
[2]
K. J. Faculty Of Engineering And Technology, Mehsana
 
 
Abstract
Rapid prototyping (RP) refers to a class of technology that can automatically construct thephysical models from computer aided design(CAD) data. Fused deposition modeling is one of the RP process that produced prototype fromplastic material by lying track of semi moltenplastic filament on to a platform in a layer wisemanner from bottom to top. The quality of FDMmade parts are highly depends upon variousprocess parameters of FDM process.Henceoptimization of FDM process parameters isnecessary in order to improve the quality of parts. The purpose of this paper is to explore thereviews for various optimization methods usedfor process parameter optimization of FDMprocess and application of Taguchi approach andArtificial neural network (ANN).Key words:
Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM),Optimization, Taguchi approach and ANN
I.
 
Introduction
Today there is a great competition in themanufacturing industries. So, it has becomeimportant for the new products to reach the marketas early as competitor. Hence the focus of industrieshas shifted from traditional product developmentmethodology to rapid prototyping in order to saveboth time and cost. The Fused deposition modelingis one of the RP technology by which physicalobjects are created directly from CAD model usinglayer by layer deposition of extrusion material. But,the quality of FDM produced part is highly dependsupon various process parameters used in thisprocess. So, it is necessary to optimize FDMparameters. Optimization of process parametershelps to finding out correct adjustment of parameters which improve the quality of theprototypes. The Taguchi method is most widelyused for design of experiments because it can beprovide simplification of experimental plans andreduced the number of experimental runs. TheArtificial neural network is the powerful tool whichmay be used for prediction of experimental results.
II.
 
Problem Formulation
The quality and cost of the product is mostimportant things to satisfy the customer. But asdiscussed earlier the quality of FDM produced partsare highly depends upon various process parametersof the process. So, it is necessary to carried out theoptimization of FDM parameters. It will improvethe quality of functional parts. There are so manymethods used for optimization, design of experiments and prediction purpose. Without brief review it is difficult to say which one is better. Thispaper helps to find out which method is better for itsparticular application and we will use best methodto achieve our goal.
III.
 
Process Parameter Optimization Of FDM Process
Es. Said et al. [1]
have studied the effect of different layer orientation on mechanical propertiesof ABS rapid prototype solid model. The samplewas fabricated by a Stratasys rapid prototypingmachine in five different layer orientations. Theyconducted impact test on ABS prototype and foundthat o degree orientation where layer were depositedalong the length of the sample displayed superiorstrength and impact resistance overall the otherorientations. It is also observed that the anisotropicproperties were probably causes by weak interlayerbonding and interlayer porosity.
B. H. Lee et al. [2]
have perform theexperiments for finding out the optimal processparameters of Fused deposition modeling rapidprototyping machine in order to achieve maximumflexibility of ABS prototype. Selected FDMparameters and their levels are shown table 1. Theyhave used Taguchi method for design of experiments. They also employed signal-to-noise(S/N) ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) toinvestigate the process parameters in order toachieve the optimum elastic performance of ABSprototype. From the results it was found that FDMparameters layer thickness, raster angle and air gapsignificantly affect the elastic performance of thecompliant ABS prototype.
 
RajendraDarbar, Prof. D. M. Patel, Prof. Jaimin Patel / International Journal of EngineeringResearch and Applications (IJERA)ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.743-746
 
744 | Page
Table 1 FDM parameters and their levelsSymbol FDM parameter Unit Level 1 Level 2 Level 3A
Air gap mm Solid fine Sparse Double wide
B
Raster angle degree angle 0 45 60
C
Raster width mm 0.305 0.655 0.980
D
Layer thickness mm 0.178 0.254 0.305
A. K. Sood et al. [3]
Have studied the effect of five important FDM machine process parameters
 
such as layer thickness, part build orientation,raster angle, raster width and air gap oncompressive strength of test specimens. They alsodevelop the statistically validated predictiveequation to find out optimal process parameterssetting. The experiments were conducted usingcentral composite design (CCD) method. Effect of various factors and their interactions are explainedusing response surface plot. They have found thatfibre-fibre bond strength must be strong which canbe achieving by controlling the distortions arisingduring part build stage.Optimization of processparameters gives the maximum compressive stressof 17.4751 MPaand the optimum value of layerthickness, orientation, raster angle, raster width andair gap as 0.254 mm, 0.036 degree, 59.44 degree,0.422 mm and 0.00026 mm respectively.
JaiminPatel et al. [4]
they have investigate theeffect of three important FDM parameters likelayer thickness, orientation angle and raster widthon tensile strength and flexural strength of FDMfabricate test specimens. They have selected threeFDM parameters each of at three levels for study.Taguchi method was employed for design of experiments. Analysis of variance and signal tonoise ratio were used to find out which parameter issignificant over output response. After theexperimental work and ANOVA analysis they haveconclude that the layer thickness and orientationangle is highly significant to responsecharacteristics whereas raster width have a littleeffect on it which is shown in Figure 1.Figure 1 Effects of FDM parameters on Tensile and Flexural strength of test specimen
Anoop Kumar et al. [5]
have studied the influenceof important process parameter viz. layer thickness,part orientation, raster angle, and air gap and rasterwidth along with their interaction on dimensionalaccuracy of fused deposition modeling (FDM)process ABS parts. They have observed that theshrinkage is dominant along with the length andwidth direction of built parts. But the positivedeviation from the required value is observed in thethickness direction. Optimum parameter settings tominimize percentage change in length, width andthickness of standard test specimen have been found
out using Taguchi’s parameter design. They were
used artificial neural network (ANN) for predictionpurpose. Finally they conclude that for minimizingpercentage change in length higher layer thickness(0.254 mm), 0orientation, maximum raster angle(60), medium raster width and 0.004 air gap willgive desire results. On the other hand lower value of layer thickness (0.127mm), orientation (0), rasterangle (0) and higher value of raster width andminimum value of air gap (0.004mm) will minimizepercentage change in thickness of test specimen.They adopted grey Taguchi method to fabricate thepart in such a manner that all the 3 dimensionalshows minimum deviation from actual value.Finally maximization of grey relational grade showsthat layer thickness of 0.178 mm, part orientation of 0 degree, raster angle of 0 degree, road width o0.4564 mm and air gap of 0.008 mm will producedoverall improvement in part dimensions.
Application of Taguchi Approach
Leladhar et al. [6]
They have doneexperimental investigation to conduct research of WAJM machining parameters impact on MRR and
 
RajendraDarbar, Prof. D. M. Patel, Prof. Jaimin Patel / International Journal of EngineeringResearch and Applications (IJERA)ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.743-746
 
745 | Page
surface roughness of work piece of AL 7075.Taguchi method was applied to find optimumprocess parameters for abrasive water jet machining(WAJM). The
approach was based on Taguchi’s
method, analysis of variance and signals to noiseratio to optimize the WAJM process parameters foreffective machining and to predict the optimalchoice for each WAJM parameters such as traversespeed, abrasive flow rate, standoff distance andabrasive
 
grit size. After the experimental work theyhave conclude that traverse speed and abrasive gritsize is most significant factor on MRR and surfaceroughness respectively.
Rama rao et al. [7]
they have studied the effect of various electro chemical machining parameters suchas voltage, feed rate and electrolyte concentration onthe material removal rate of the AL Sic material.The settings of process parameters were determine
 by using Taguchi’
s experimental design method.Orthogonal array of Taguchi, the signal to noiseratio, the analysis of variance and regressionanalysis are employed to find the optimal processparameter levels and to analyze the effect of theseparameters on material removal rate values.Confirmation test with the optimal level of machining parameters was carried out in order toillustrate the effectiveness of the Taguchioptimization method. After the data analysis they
have found that ANOVA and Taguchi’s S/N ratio
for data analysis drew similar conclusion. After theexperimental work statistical result shows that thevoltage, feed rate and electrolyte concentrationaffects the metal removal rate by 34.04 %, 58.09 %and 7.57 % in ECM respectively. At lastthe analysisof the confirmation experiment for metal removalrate has shown that Taguchi parameter design cansuccessfully verify the optimum cutting parameters.
Srinivasathreya et al. [8]
they have study toillustrate the procedure adopted in using TaguchiMethod to a lathe facing operation. The orthogonalarray, signal-to-noise ratio, and the analysis of variance are employed to study the performancecharacteristics on facing operation. In this analysis,three factors namely speed; feed and depth of cutwere considered. Accordingly, a suitable orthogonalarray was selected and experiments were conducted.After conducting the experiments the surfaceroughness was measured and Signal to Noise ratiowas calculated.With the help of graphs, optimumparameter values were obtained and theconfirmation experiments were carried out.Theseresults were compared with the results of fullfactorial method. After the comparison they haveconclude that the Tag
uchi’s Method of parameter 
design can be performed with lesser number of experimentations as compared to that of fullfactorial analysis and yields similar results.It isfound that the parameter design of the Taguchimethod provides a simple, systematic, and efficientmethodology for optimizing the process parameters.
Application OfArtificial Neural Network
Ramezan Ali et al. [9]
They have conductexperimentsto optimize the surface roughness andmaterial removal rate of electro dischargemachining of Sic parameters simultaneously.Effectsof three important input parameters of process viz.,discharge current, pulse on time (Ton), pulse off time (Toff) on electric discharge machining of Sicare considered.Artificial neural network (ANN) withback propagation algorithm is used to model theprocess. A multi-objective optimization method,non-dominating sorting genetic algorithm-II is usedto optimize the process.Experiments have beenconducted over a wide range of considered inputparameters for training and verification of themodel.The MRR and surface roughness have beenmeasured for each setting of pulse on time and pulseoff time and current.ANN model has been trainedwithin the experimental data which both are close toeach other that demonstrate that the model issuitable for predicting the response parameters.
Mr.Ch.Madhu et al. [10]
They have doneexperiments in order to find out effect of turningparameters on surface roughness of titanium work piece. Three important turning parameters such ascutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut are selectedto study for this purpose. They have employeddesign of experiments in order to conduct theexperiments. The model for the surface roughness,as a function of cutting parameters, is obtained usingANN in MATLAB7. After the experimental work comparison was carried out between experimentaldata and ANN value which was found similar. Theresults obtained conclude that ANN is reliablemethod and it can be readily applied to differentmetal cutting processes with greater confidence.
 ShenChangyu et al. [11]
they haveproposed acombining artificial neural network and geneticalgorithm method to optimize injection moldingprocess. The back propagation neural model wasdeveloped to build nonlinear relationship betweenprocess conditions and quality indexes of theinjection molded parts. The genetic algorithm wasused for process condition optimization. Thecombine ANN/GA method is used in the processoptimization for industrial parts in order to improvethe quality of volumetric shrinkage variation in theparts. After the results they have conclude thatTheANNtechniquehasbeenshownasaneffectivemethodtomodelthecomplexrelationshipbetweentheprocessconditionsandthequalityindexofinjectionmoldingparts.TheGAisespeciallyappropriatetoobtaintheglobal

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