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FUNDAMENTALS OF ALGEBRA

# FUNDAMENTALS OF ALGEBRA

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Examville is a global education community where users like you can connect and interact with other students and teachers from around the world. For more FREE Calculus study material please visit: www.examville.com
Examville is a global education community where users like you can connect and interact with other students and teachers from around the world. For more FREE Calculus study material please visit: www.examville.com

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Published by: Examville.com on Feb 19, 2009

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06/16/2009

FUNDAMENTALS OF ALGEBRA
POLYNOMIALS
A
variable
is a letter that can represent any number from a given set of real numbers. Thecommon variables used are
x, y, z
etc. When we use addition, subtraction, multiplication,division, powers, roots on the variables, we get
algebraic expressions
.Examples :2
x
2
@
3
x
+
2
,
2
y
wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww
+
x
2
,x
+
y x
@
y
fffffffffffffffff
etc are algebraic expressions.A monomial is a real number or a real number multiplied with variables with powers aswhole numbers.6
x
2
,
2
y,
@
5
,
@
23
fff
x
3
y
2
z
are examples of monomials.Sum of two or more monomials is called a
polynomial
.[Sum of two monomials is called a binomial.]Example:13
fff
x
2
@
3
x
+
2 is a polynomial which has three terms13
fff
x
2
,
@
3
x and
2
A

COMBINING ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS:Addition and Subtraction :
To combine polynomials, we use the same
properties of real number operations
(seethe chapter : Sets, Numbers, Operations, Properties.The terms in which the same variables are raised to the same powers are the
like terms
.
Amongtheterms
3
x
2
,
@
4
xy
2
,
2
xy,
@
12
fff
xy
3
z,
@
x
2
,
3
xy
3
z,
10
xy,
7
xy
2
theliketermsare
3
x
2
and
@
x
2
,
@
4
xy
2
and
7
xy
2
,
2
xyan
10
xy,
@
12
fff
xy
3
z and
3
xy
3
z
A
To add or subtract two polynomials, we combine the like terms by using the DistributiveProperty.Example : 3
x
2
+
5
x
2
=
3
+
5
` a
x
2
=
8
x
2
If there is a minus sign before a parentheses, while removing the parentheses, signs of allthe terms inside the parentheses are changed.
@
2
x
2
@
3
x
+
4
b c
=
@
2
x
2
+
3
x
@
4

Example : (a) Find the sum of 2
x
3
@
3
x
2
+
x
@
5
b c
and x
3
+
2
x
2
@
2
x
+
1
b c
(b) Subtract
x
3
+
2
x
2
@
2
x
+
1
b c
from
2
x
3
@
3
x
2
+
x
@
5
b c
Solution :
a
` a
2
x
3
@
3
x
2
+
x
@
5
b c
+
x
3
+
2
x
2
@
2
x
+
1
b c
=
2
x
3
+
x
3
b c
+
@
3
x
2
+
2
x
2
b c
+
x
@
2
x
` a
+
@
5
+
1
` a
=
3
x
3
@
x
2
@
x
@
4
b
` a
2
x
3
@
3
x
2
+
x
@
5
b c
@
x
3
+
2
x
2
@
2
x
+
1
b c
=
2
x
3
@
3
x
2
+
x
@
5
@
x
3
@
2
x
2
+
2
x
@
1
=
2
x
3
@
x
3
b c
+
@
3
x
2
@
2
x
2
b c
+
x
+
2
x
` a
+
@
5
@
1
` a
=
x
3
@
5
x
2
+
3
x
@
6
Multiplication :
To find the
product
of polynomials we use the Distributive property and laws of exponents.Example : Find the product3
x
2
@
5
b c
x
3
+
2
x
2
@
2
x
+
1
b c
Solution :3
x
2
@
5
b c
x
3
+
2
x
2
@
2
x
+
1
b c
=
3
x
2
x
3
+
2
x
2
@
2
x
+
1
b c
@
5
x
3
+
2
x
2
@
2
x
+
1
b c
Distributiveproperty
=
3
x
5
+
6
x
4
@
6
x
3
+
3
x
2
@
5
x
3
@
10
x
2
+
10
x
@
5
Distributiveproperty
=
3
x
5
+
6
x
4
@
11
x
3
@
7
x
2
+
10
x
@
5
Combiningtheliketerms

SOME SPECIAL PRODUCT FORMULAS:
1
A
A
+
B
` a
A
@
B
` a
=
A
2
@
B
2
2
A
A
+
B
` a
2
=
A
2
+
2
AB
+
B
2
3
A
A
@
B
` a
2
=
A
2
@
2
AB
+
B
2
4
A
A
+
B
` a
3
=
A
3
+
3
A
2
B
+
3
AB
2
+
B
3
5
A
A
@
B
` a
3
=
A
3
@
3
A
2
B
+
3
AB
2
@
B
3
6
A
A
+
B
` a
A
2
@
AB
+
B
2
b c
=
A
3
+
B
3
7
A
A
@
B
` a
A
2
+
AB
+
B
2
b c
=
A
3
@
B
3
Example : Find2
x
@
3
` a
2
and
2
+
3
y
b c
2
@
3
y
b c
Solution :2
x
@
3
` a
2
=
2
x
` a
2
@
2.2
x
A
3
+
3
2
takingA
=
2
x,B
=
3
andusing A
@
B
` a
2
=
A
2
@
2
AB
+
B
2
=
4
x
2
@
12
x
+
92
+
3
y
b c
2
@
3
y
b c
=
2
2
@
3
y
b c
2
takingA
=
2
,B
=
3
yandusing A
+
B
` a
A
@
B
` a
=
A
2
@
B
2
=
4
@
9
y
2

FACTORING
Factoring is the opposite process of finding products. Here a polynomial is to be writtenas the product of two or more simpler polynomials.If we multiply 2
x
@
3 with 4
x
+
5, we get
2
x
@
3
` a
4
x
+
5
` a
=
2
x
4
x
+
5
` a
@
34
x
+
5
` a
=
8
x
2
+
10
x
@
12
x
@
15
=
8
x
2
@
2
x
@
15
On the reverse, if we are asked to factor 8
x
2
@
2
x
@
15, we have to write8
x
2
@
2
x
@
15
=
2
x
@
3
` a
4
x
+
5
` a
.Here, 2
x
@
3
` a
and4
x
+
5
` a
arethefactorsof8
x
2
@
2
x
@
15.To factor a polynomial, we use the following methods wherever applicable :

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