The purpose for this research is to reviews the current refuel
valorisation, and also looking ahead what’s
the future significanceof bio-refinery technology. Bio refinery is facility which integratesconversion equipment and process to produce power, fuel andvarious chemicals from biomass. The bio-refinery technologycombines all the necessary bio-renewable raw material withintermediate chemicals and concerts to final product. Dependingon the type of product required, different technologies andbiomass are used. For example production of char and bio-oil bypyrolysis, gaseous fuels from biomass, hydrothermal liquefactionfrom biomassOn this report a focus on fast pyrolysis technologies has beenreviewed. Fast pyrolysis process biomasses produce a BIO-OIL orliquid production. The technology for fast pyrolysis is emphasised,explaining all major reaction. The primary liquid product isspecified by customer or referring many properties which can bebeneficial. A suitable biomass has being chosen, wood, in whichcan produce high efficiency. The fast pyrolysis technology and bio-mass properties have caused an increasingly extensive research tobe undertaken to improve the process for high yield. The processupgrading is carried out using chemical, physical and catalyticmethod. The catalytic upgrading one is increasing diverse methodsand catalyst and particular to complexity and sophistication of multi-
functional systems. Also it’s useful to see other companies’
involvement in this technology area and increase take-up byevolving upgrading process.The cost and environmental aspect for this process has beingresearched and evaluated. Fast pyrolysis has no effectenvironment harmless since it self-sufficient energy. Costevaluation is assessed as well, can be said economical viableconsidering the high yield and efficient. (Demirbas, 2011)
The history of the process of conversion of biomass to usefulenergy or fuels has been started from early 1860, when theGerman Nikolaus August Otto invented an Otto engine whichworks by using ethanol as a fuel. Likewise, in 20
century Rudolf Diesel invented the diesel engine which uses peanut oil and HenryFord designed his Model T car which operates on ethanol derivedfrom hemp. When the crude oil was started exploring in large scalein 1930s, the bio fuel production started to decline and after that itwas twice when bio fuels production was enhanced due to thecrisis of oil in rest of the last century which was because of thecircumstances .the first circumstance was In world war 2,there wasthe shortage of fuels and in order to replace this ,gasoline alongwith alcohol (derived from potato )was used in Germany andgasoline along with alcohol( derived from grain ) was used in GreatBritain and the second incident was in 1970s where because of thehigh price of the oil the scientist and the government were forcedto produce the bio fuels . (A.V. Bridgwater a, 30 (1999) )Along with the development of bio-refineries in many Europeancountries in these last decades, the concern of its biological andclimatic effect were arising in the public agendas globally whichslowly transformed in to regional and national legislation in thebeginning of the 21
century. For instance, in 2003 EU brought biofuel directive, which set a reference value of 5.75% for each marketshare of bio fuels in 2010. These legislations and developments areexpected to enhance the second generation bio-refineries and it isestimated that within 5 to 10 years bio fuels (cellulosic) will beavailable on large scale on fully commercial basis. (Ghatak
Energy Consumption and Need
The need of energy is increasing continuously, because of increases
in industrialization and population. The growth of world’s energy
demand raises urgent problems. The larger part of petroleum andnatural gas reserves is located within a small group of countries.For example, the Middle East countries have 63% of the globalreserves and are the dominant supplier of petroleum. This energysystem is unsustainable because of equity issues as well asenvironmental, economic, and geopolitical concerns that have farreaching implications. Interestingly, the renewable energyresources are more evenly distributed than fossil or nuclearresources. Also the energy flows from renewable resources aremore than three orders of magnitude higher than current globalenergy need. Now a
energy processing is not sustainable dueequity issue as well as economic, environmental and geo-politicalissues; which have implication for in future generation. Bio fuelrefinery using biomass is the most significant component tomitigate greenhouse gas emission and also substitute of fossil fuels.As its obvious renewable energy is a best ways to achieve highefficient and sustainable development. (Demirbas, 2011)
There are various types of biological feedstock though there are nofeed which can be a clear alternative to fossil based products.
There are many feedstock’s available in the environment each with
its advantage and disadvantage. There are mainly two categorieswhich have been found.
First generation products
:-these products are generally producedfrom the edible biomass such as oily and starch rich plants.