Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Cosmic acceleration

Cosmic acceleration

Ratings: (0)|Views: 48|Likes:
Published by arbab64
An accelerating universe with cosmological constant and variable gravitational constant.
An accelerating universe with cosmological constant and variable gravitational constant.

More info:

Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: arbab64 on Feb 19, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

07/15/2013

 
I
NSTITUTE OF
P
HYSICS
P
UBLISHING
C
LASSICAL AND
Q
UANTUM
G
RAVITY
Class. Quantum Grav.
20
(2003) 9399 PII: S0264-9381(03)39719-9
Cosmic acceleration with a positive cosmologicalconstant
Arbab I Arbab
1
Department of Physics, Teacher’s College, Riyadh 11491, PO Box 4341, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaE-mail: arbab@ictp.trieste.it
Received 19 July 2002Published 12 December 2002Online atstacks.iop.org/CQG/20/93
Abstract
We have considered a cosmological model with a phenomenological modelfor the cosmological constant of the form
=
β
¨
RR
where
β
is a constant.For age an parameter consistent with observational data, the universe must beacceleratinginthepresenceofapositivecosmologicalconstant. Theminimumage of the universe is
10
, where
0
is the present Hubble constant. Thecosmological constant is found to decrease as
2
. Allowing the gravitationalconstant to change with time leads to an ever-increasing gravitational constantat the present epoch. In the presence of a viscous fluid this decay law for
isequivalent to the one with
=
3
αH 
2
=
const
)
provided
α
=
β
3
2
)
. Theinflationary solution obtained from this model is that of the de Sitter type.PACS numbers: 98.80.
k, 98.80.Hw
1. Introduction
One of the puzzling problems in standard cosmology is the cosmological constant problem.Observational data indicate that
10
55
cm
2
while the particle physics prediction for
is greater than this value by a factor of the order of 10
120
. This discrepancy is known as thecosmological constant problem. A point of view which allows
to vary in time is adoptedby several workers. The point is that during the evolution of the universe, the energy densityof the vacuum decays into particles thus leading to the decrease of the cosmological constant.As a result one has creation of particles althoughthe typical rate of creation is verysmall. Theentropy problem which exists in the Standard Model can be solved by the above mechanism.One of the motivations for introducing the
term is to reconcile the age parameter anddensity parameter of the universe with current observational data. Recent observations of type 1a supernovae which indicate an accelerating universe, once more draw attention to the
1
On leave from Comboni College for Computer Science, PO Box 114, Khartoum, Sudan.0264-9381/03/010093+07$30.00 © 2003 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UK 93
 
94 A I Arbab
possible existence, at the present epoch, of a small positive cosmological constant (
). Onepossible cause of the present accelerationcould be the ever-increasinggravitational(constant)forces. As a consequence,a flat universehas to speedup so thatgravitationalattractionshouldnot win over expansion. Or alternatively, the newly created particles give up their kineticenergy to push the expansion further away.The purpose of this work is to study the phenomenological decay law for
that isproportional to the deceleration parameter. In an attempt to modify the general theory of relativity, Al-Rawaf and Taha [17] related the cosmological constant to the Ricci scalar,
R
.This is written as a built-in cosmologicalconstant, i.e.,
R
. A comparisonwith ouransatzabove for
yields a similar behaviour for a flat universe. And since the Ricci scalar containsa term of the form
¨
RR
, one adopts this variation for
. We parametrized this as
=
β
¨
RR
,where
β
is a constant. The cosmological consequences of this decay law are very attractive.The law finds little attention among cosmologists but it provides a reasonable solution to thecosmological puzzles presently known. We have found that a resolution to these problemsis possible with a positive cosmological constant
( >
0
)
. This requires the decelerationparameter to be negative
(q <
0
)
. Usually, people invoke some kind of a scalar field that hasan equation of state of the form
p <
0 where
p
is the pressure of the scalar field. A morerecent review for the case of a positive cosmological constant is found in [6].A variable gravitational constant
G
can also be incorporated into a simple framework inwhich
varies as well, while retaining the usual energy conservation law [1, 10, 11]. Theabove decay law leads to a power-law variation for
G
. Inflationary solutions are also possiblewith this mechanism, thus solving the standard model problems. We have recently shownthat a certain variation of 
G
may be consistent with palaeontological as well as geophysicaldata [15].
2. The model
For the Friedmann–Robertson–Walker metric, Einstein’s field equations with the variablecosmologicalconstant and a source term givenby a stress-energytensor of a perfect fluid read3˙
R
2
R
2
+3
kR
2
=
8
πGρ
+
,
(1)2¨
RR
+˙
R
2
R
2
+
kR
2
=
8
πGp
+
(2)where
ρ
is the fluid energy density and
p
its pressure. The equation of state is taken in theform
p
=
(γ 
1
(3)where
γ 
is a constant. From equations (1) and(2)one finds d
(ρR
3
)
d
+
p
d
R
3
d
=
R
3
8
πG
d
d
.
(4)We propose a phenomenologicaldecay law for
of the form [4, 5]
=
β
¨
RR
(5)where
β
is a constant. Overdinand Cooperstockhavepointedout that there is no fundamentaldifference between the first and second derivatives of the scale factor that would preclude the
 
Cosmic acceleration with a positive cosmological constant 95
latter from acting as an independent variable if the former is acceptable [4]. Moreover, fromequations (1) and(4), one can write ¨
R
=
8
πG
3
1
3
γ 
2
ρR
+
3
R.
(6)Thus one example of 
in the above form is the case when the universe is filled with a fluidcharacterized by
γ 
=
23
and
β
=
3. For other values of 
γ(
=
1
),β
is not constrained by theEinstein equations, and the general relation
=
ββ
3
4
πGρ
(7)shows the ratio of 
to
ρ
is constant in this phenomenological model. Now equation (1)together with equation (7) yield
=
ββ
2
2
.
(8)Thus, as remarked by Overdin and Cooperstock, the model with
2
and the above form(equation (5)) are basically equivalent. We see that in the radiation- and in matter-dominatederasthevacuumcontributessignificantlytothetotalenergydensityoftheuniverseinbotheras.Thus unless the vacuum always couples (somehow) to gravity, such a behaviour cannot beguaranteed (and understood)at both epochs. Such a mechanism is exhibited in equation (20). Hence the vacuum domination of the present universe is not accidental but a feature that ispresentat all times. Onewouldexpectthattheremust havebeena conspiracybetweenthetwocomponentsin sucha way that the usualenergyconservationholds. Therefore,onemayarguethat in cosmology the energyconservation principle is not
a priori
principle [17]. We observefrom equation (7) that
0
Pl
ρ
0
ρ
Pl
10
29
10
93
=
10
122
, where ‘0’ refers to the present and ‘Pl’refers to Planck era of the quantity, respectively. Thus such a phenomenologicalmodel for
couldprovidea
natural
answer (interpretation)to the puzzlingquestion whythe cosmologicalconstant is so small tody, rather than just attributing it to the oldness of our present universe.For the matter-dominated universe,
γ 
=
1 and therefore equations (2), (3) and(5) yield (for
k
=
0)
2
)
¨
RR
=
˙
R
2
,
(9)which can be integrated to give
R(t)
=
A(β
3
)
2
)
2
)/(β
3
)
, β
=
3
, β
=
2
,
(10)where
A
=
constant. It follows from equation (5) that
(t)
=
β(β
2
)
3
)
2
1
2
, β
=
3
.
(11)Using equations (1), (5) and(10), the energy density can be written as,
ρ(t)
=
2
)
3
)
14
πGt 
2
, β
=
3 (12)and the vacuum energy density
v
)
is given by
ρ
v
(t)
=
8
πG
=
β(β
2
)
3
)
2
18
πGt 
2
, β
=
3
.
(13)The deceleration parameter (
q
) is defined as
q
=
¨
RR
˙
R
2
=
12
β, β
=
2
.
(14)

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->