This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more

Download

Standard view

Full view

of .

Look up keyword

Like this

Share on social networks

2Activity

×

0 of .

Results for: No results containing your search query

P. 1

Cosmic accelerationRatings: (0)|Views: 48|Likes: 1

Published by arbab64

An accelerating universe with cosmological constant and variable gravitational constant.

An accelerating universe with cosmological constant and variable gravitational constant.

See more

See less

https://www.scribd.com/doc/12641388/Cosmic-acceleration

07/15/2013

I

NSTITUTE OF

P

HYSICS

P

UBLISHING

C

LASSICAL AND

Q

UANTUM

G

RAVITY

Class. Quantum Grav.

20

(2003) 93–99 PII: S0264-9381(03)39719-9

Cosmic acceleration with a positive cosmologicalconstant

Arbab I Arbab

1

Department of Physics, Teacher’s College, Riyadh 11491, PO Box 4341, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaE-mail: arbab@ictp.trieste.it

Abstract

We have considered a cosmological model with a phenomenological modelfor the cosmological constant of the form

=

β

¨

RR

where

β

is a constant.For age an parameter consistent with observational data, the universe must beacceleratinginthepresenceofapositivecosmologicalconstant. Theminimumage of the universe is

H

−

10

, where

H

0

is the present Hubble constant. Thecosmological constant is found to decrease as

t

−

2

. Allowing the gravitationalconstant to change with time leads to an ever-increasing gravitational constantat the present epoch. In the presence of a viscous ﬂuid this decay law for

isequivalent to the one with

=

3

αH

2

(α

=

const

)

provided

α

=

β

3

(β

−

2

)

. Theinﬂationary solution obtained from this model is that of the de Sitter type.PACS numbers: 98.80.

−

k, 98.80.Hw

1. Introduction

One of the puzzling problems in standard cosmology is the cosmological constant problem.Observational data indicate that

∼

10

−

55

cm

−

2

while the particle physics prediction for

is greater than this value by a factor of the order of 10

120

. This discrepancy is known as thecosmological constant problem. A point of view which allows

to vary in time is adoptedby several workers. The point is that during the evolution of the universe, the energy densityof the vacuum decays into particles thus leading to the decrease of the cosmological constant.As a result one has creation of particles althoughthe typical rate of creation is verysmall. Theentropy problem which exists in the Standard Model can be solved by the above mechanism.One of the motivations for introducing the

term is to reconcile the age parameter anddensity parameter of the universe with current observational data. Recent observations of type 1a supernovae which indicate an accelerating universe, once more draw attention to the

1

On leave from Comboni College for Computer Science, PO Box 114, Khartoum, Sudan.0264-9381/03/010093+07$30.00 © 2003 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UK 93

94 A I Arbab

possible existence, at the present epoch, of a small positive cosmological constant (

). Onepossible cause of the present accelerationcould be the ever-increasinggravitational(constant)forces. As a consequence,a ﬂat universehas to speedup so thatgravitationalattractionshouldnot win over expansion. Or alternatively, the newly created particles give up their kineticenergy to push the expansion further away.The purpose of this work is to study the phenomenological decay law for

that isproportional to the deceleration parameter. In an attempt to modify the general theory of relativity, Al-Rawaf and Taha [17] related the cosmological constant to the Ricci scalar,

R

.This is written as a built-in cosmologicalconstant, i.e.,

∝

R

. A comparisonwith ouransatzabove for

yields a similar behaviour for a ﬂat universe. And since the Ricci scalar containsa term of the form

¨

RR

, one adopts this variation for

. We parametrized this as

=

β

¨

RR

,where

β

is a constant. The cosmological consequences of this decay law are very attractive.The law ﬁnds little attention among cosmologists but it provides a reasonable solution to thecosmological puzzles presently known. We have found that a resolution to these problemsis possible with a positive cosmological constant

( >

0

)

. This requires the decelerationparameter to be negative

(q <

0

)

. Usually, people invoke some kind of a scalar ﬁeld that hasan equation of state of the form

p <

0 where

p

is the pressure of the scalar ﬁeld. A morerecent review for the case of a positive cosmological constant is found in [6].A variable gravitational constant

G

can also be incorporated into a simple framework inwhich

varies as well, while retaining the usual energy conservation law [1, 10, 11]. Theabove decay law leads to a power-law variation for

G

. Inﬂationary solutions are also possiblewith this mechanism, thus solving the standard model problems. We have recently shownthat a certain variation of

G

may be consistent with palaeontological as well as geophysicaldata [15].

2. The model

For the Friedmann–Robertson–Walker metric, Einstein’s ﬁeld equations with the variablecosmologicalconstant and a source term givenby a stress-energytensor of a perfect ﬂuid read3˙

R

2

R

2

+3

kR

2

=

8

πGρ

+

,

(1)2¨

RR

+˙

R

2

R

2

+

kR

2

=−

8

πGp

+

(2)where

ρ

is the ﬂuid energy density and

p

its pressure. The equation of state is taken in theform

p

=

(γ

−

1

)ρ

(3)where

γ

(ρR

3

)

d

t

+

p

d

R

3

d

t

=−

R

3

8

πG

d

d

t .

(4)We propose a phenomenologicaldecay law for

of the form [4, 5]

=

β

¨

RR

(5)where

β

is a constant. Overdinand Cooperstockhavepointedout that there is no fundamentaldifference between the ﬁrst and second derivatives of the scale factor that would preclude the

Cosmic acceleration with a positive cosmological constant 95

latter from acting as an independent variable if the former is acceptable [4]. Moreover, fromequations (1) and(4), one can write
¨

R

=

8

πG

3

1

−

3

γ

2

ρR

+

3

R.

(6)Thus one example of

in the above form is the case when the universe is ﬁlled with a ﬂuidcharacterized by

γ

=

23

and

β

=

3. For other values of

γ(

=

1

),β

is not constrained by theEinstein equations, and the general relation

=

ββ

−

3

4

πGρ

(7)shows the ratio of

to

ρ

=

ββ

−

2

H

2

.

(8)Thus, as remarked by Overdin and Cooperstock, the model with

∝

H

2

and the above form(equation (5)) are basically equivalent. We see that in the radiation- and in matter-dominatederasthevacuumcontributessigniﬁcantlytothetotalenergydensityoftheuniverseinbotheras.Thus unless the vacuum always couples (somehow) to gravity, such a behaviour cannot beguaranteed (and understood)at both epochs. Such a mechanism is exhibited in equation (20).
Hence the vacuum domination of the present universe is not accidental but a feature that ispresentat all times. Onewouldexpectthattheremust havebeena conspiracybetweenthetwocomponentsin sucha way that the usualenergyconservationholds. Therefore,onemayarguethat in cosmology the energyconservation principle is not

a priori

0

Pl

≈

ρ

0

ρ

Pl

≈

10

−

29

10

93

=

10

−

122

, where ‘0’ refers to the present and ‘Pl’refers to Planck era of the quantity, respectively. Thus such a phenomenologicalmodel for

couldprovidea

natural

answer (interpretation)to the puzzlingquestion whythe cosmologicalconstant is so small tody, rather than just attributing it to the oldness of our present universe.For the matter-dominated universe,

γ

=

k

=

0)

(β

−

2

)

¨

RR

=

˙

R

2

,

(9)which can be integrated to give

R(t)

=

A(β

−

3

)(β

−

2

)t

(β

−

2

)/(β

−

3

)

, β

=

3

, β

=

2

,

(10)where

A

=

(t)

=

β(β

−

2

)(β

−

3

)

2

1

t

2

, β

=

3

.

ρ(t)

=

(β

−

2

)(β

−

3

)

14

πGt

2

, β

=

3 (12)and the vacuum energy density

(ρ

v

)

is given by

ρ

v

(t)

=

8

πG

=

β(β

−

2

)(β

−

3

)

2

18

πGt

2

, β

=

3

.

(13)The deceleration parameter (

q

) is deﬁned as

q

=−

¨

RR

˙

R

2

=

12

−

β, β

=

2

.

(14)

- Read and print without ads
- Download to keep your version
- Edit, email or read offline

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

CANCEL

OK

You've been reading!

NO, THANKS

OK

scribd