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Gnostic Ideas on the Fall and Salvation

Gnostic Ideas on the Fall and Salvation

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Gnostic Ideas on the Fall and SalvationAuthor(s): J. ZandeeReviewed work(s):Source:
Numen,
Vol. 11, Fasc. 1 (Jan., 1964), pp. 13-74Published by:
Stable URL:
Accessed: 07/02/2012 15:29
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GNOSTIC IDEASONTHEFALLANDSALVATION
BY
J.ZANDEE
UtrechtCONTENTS
I.INTRODUCTION.
II.
THEGNOSTIC SYSTEMIII.DEFICIENCY
I.TheTranscendent God
2.
TheExtra-TemporalFall3.The Creation ofthe World4.The Fallof Adam.5.The Defects of theCreature.a.Ignorance,
ayvoL..
.b.Deficiency,
uor?p)lpao,
sta.c.Sickness,
a0aOve'iv,
soned.Sleep,7rnvoUv,nkoteke.Passion,7ra0c0o.
IV.SALVATION.
I.
ThePneumaticSeed,rTOarCepta
o'
Trxvu0crTLx6v.2.
Pre-ExistentMan3.Election4.TheThreefoldOrder5.TheSaviour.6.Salvation.a.Revelation,(pavepo5v,wonehebol.b.Knowledge,........c.Formation,
O6pcpoa
Ld.Completion,
're?XLV,
dj6kebol .e.Salvation andRedemption(acorTYpLac,
aoXuTrpcoa).
7.Incarnation8.Oixovoc....9.TheReturnIO.TheResurrection.II. TheRestoration,&Toxaroar0a......Page
..13
6i6
21*212327
*.31
*
* *34*
.
35
..
3739.4040?..
41
4141*43*45*4756..56
..
575959
..62
6465..666970I.INTRODUCTION
InthepastGnosticismwasknownonlyfromtheworks ofChristianheresiologists,e.g.,theAdversusHaereses ofIrenaeus,theElenchos
I
 
(=Philosophoumena=Refutatio OmniumHaeresium)ascribedtoHippolytus,theDePraescriptioneHaereticorumandAdversusValen-tinianos ofTertullian,theExcerptaex Theodoto from theStromateisofClement ofAlexandria,thefragmentsofHeracleon inOrigen'sCommentaryonJohn,partsoftheHistorica EcclesiasticaofEusebiusand the Panarion ofEpiphanius.Apartfromthesepolemical writings,therewas theoccasional Gnosticwork,suchas the CodexAskewianus(datingfromthe5thcenturyandsince1785intheBritishMuseum),whichcontainsthePistisSophia (a popularworkwhichprovides onlyaconfusedpictureand canserveas but apoorrepresentativeof theGnosticsystems)1).OtherGnostic works are the CodexBrucianus,containingthe two Books ofJeu
2)
andthe CodexBerolinensis85023).Thislastmanuscriptcontains theGospelofMary,a version oftheApocryphonofJohnandtheSophiaJesuChristi.Ofthethree,thesecond canbesaid tobethemostimportant,and hasquitepossibleser-ved asoneofIrenaeus'sources. Further, it includesthe main themesofGnosticteaching.Thesources mentionedabove existonlyinCoptic,ineither theSahidicor Sub-achmimicdialect andarepresumablyrenderingsof Greekoriginals.In1945near thetown ofNagHammadi,aboutioo km. north ofLuxor,Egypt,some fellahindiscoveredanearthenwarepot,which,uponcloserinspection,wasfound to contain some13codices4).Asaresultof thissensationaldiscovery,thenumberof Gnosticmanu-scriptsisconsiderablyenlarged.Theforty-nine writings,arrangedinthese thirteencodicesandtotallingaboutoo000ages,forthemost
i)C.Schmidt,PistisSophia,Hauniae,1925;W. C.Till, Koptische-gnostischeSchriften,I.Band,
1954.2)
C.Schmidt,GnostischeSchrifteninkoptischerSpracheausdem CodexBrucianusherausgegeben,ibersetztundbearbeitet,Leipzig,
1892;
T.U., n.F.,
VIII,i,2.
3)W.C.Till,DiegnostischenSchriftendeskoptischenPapyrusBerolinensis
8502,Berlin,1955.
4)JeanDoresse,Unebibliothequenostiquecoptesurpapyrus,Bibliotheca
OrientalisVI, Leiden,I949,pp.102-104; J. Doresse,Leslivressecretsdes
gnostiques'ggypte I,Paris,I958;H.Ch.Puech,Lesnouveauxcritsgnosti-quesdecouverts nHaute-1]gypte,nCopticStudiesnhonourofW.E.Crum,
Boston,1950,pp.91-154;W. C.vanUnnik,EvangelienausdemNilsand,Frank-furt amMain,1959;Bibliography,ActaOrientaliaXXIV,3-4, 1959;M.Krause,
DerkoptischeHandschriftenfundeiNagHammadi,UmfangundInhalt,Mit-teilungenesDeutschenArchaologischennstitutsAbteilungKairo,BandXVIII,
1962, pp.I21-132.
J.Zandee
I4

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